IJTLLS எனும் பன்னாட்டு தமிழ் இதழை இனிதே தொடங்கி நடத்துவதில் மிகவும் பெருமையடைகிறோம். தமிழ் மொழி மற்றும் இலக்கியத்தின் தொன்மையினை வெளிக்கொணரும் வகையில் இவ்ஆய்விதழ் அமைந்துள்ளது. தமிழ் ஆய்வாளர்கள், பேராளர்கள் மற்றும் ஆர்வலர்கள் தங்கள் ஆய்வை இயற்றி ஒப்புமை மற்றும் உயர்வு பெற இது ஓர் அரிய களமாகும். இது இப்பன்னாட்டு இதழின் முதல் வெளியீட்டின் இரண்டாம் தொகுதியாகும். என் பணி தமிழ் பணி செய்து கிடப்பதுவே என்பதற்கிணங்க ஆராய்ச்சி மாணவர்கள் மற்றும் பேராளர்களால் சிறந்த ஆய்வு இருமொழிகளில் (தமிழ் மற்றும் ஆங்கிலம்) ஆய்வு கட்டுரைகளைக் கொண்டிருப்பதாகும். ஆய்வாளர்களின் அனைத்து கட்டுரைகளும் ஆய்வு நெறிமுறைகளின்படி தணிக்கைச் செய்யப்பட்டு மதிப்புரை வழங்கி செம்மைப்படுத்திப் பிரசுரம் செய்யப்பட்டுள்ளது. தமிழ் வளர்ச்சிக்காக அதன் தொன்மையை உலக அரங்கிற்கு எடுத்துச் செல்வதே இவ்ஆய்விதழின் நோக்கமாகக் கொண்டாளப்பட்டுள்ளது. மேன்மேலும் இப்பன்னாட்டு இதழ்வளர்ச்சியடைய அனைவரின் சிறந்த ஆய்வு கட்டுரைகள் வரவேற்கப்படுகின்றன.
தொல்காப்பிய உவமயியல் கோட்பாடும் அணியியலும்
முனைவர். அ. உமாமகேஸ்வரி
The Concept of Metaphor in Tolkappiyam and Figures of Speech
Dr. A. Umamageswari
Traditional Tamil grammar consists of five parts namely Eluthu, Sol, Porul, Yappu and Ani. Of these, the last Ani belongs to principles of North-Indian literature. This article strongly disclaims that the Ani Ilakanam belongs to principles of North- Indian Literature because of the concept of Ani Ilakanam existed even before the time of Tolkappiam, the most ancient grammar text that is before the Christian era. The notion of the study is to find out the concept of metaphor in Tolkappiyam and the use of figures of speech.
கழுவுறு கலிங்கம் கழாஅது உடீஇ.. - ஒப்பியல் உரை நோக்கு
Kaḻuvuṟu Kaliṅkam Kaḻāatu Uṭīi- Comparative Perspective
The “kaḻuvuṟu kaliṅgam kalathu utii” line is to be analyzed is a second line of Kurunthogai 167th poem, which is started with “muḷithayir pisaintha kānthaḷ melviral” written by Koodalur Kilar. The commentaries of later commentators such as Sa.Ve. Subramaniyan, Vee. Nagarajan have been taken for consideration along with the early commentators who have written commentaries on Kurunthogai such as Sowri Perumal Arangan, U.Ve.Saminathaiyer, Po.Ve. Somasundaranar, Mu.Shanmugam pillai, Raa. Raghavaiyangar. The main concept of this paper is to do an analysis to identify that whose commentary is concurrence with the original text among the above seven people. So many commentaries had been written based on their views and early commentator’s view. This analysis explains that which commentary is concurrent with the original text.
பழமொழிகள் கூறும் மருத்துவம்
Folk Sayings and Medicine
Proverbs are the sayings of virtuous men of the ancient times of any culture. Pone can easily understand the tradition and culture of any society through the proverbs belong to that society. It remains a treasure in the hearts of the common folk and eminence among the scholarly community. It prevails an encyclopedia of thoughts, fountain of experience and deciphers the life experiences for the betterment of people. Brevity is the wit of soul; it is the aim of the proverb. In Tamil proverbs many help us to know about the use of folk medicine. They are so much useful as an antibiotic or first aid to cure common diseases. The article proceeds to find out the use of folk medicine through folk sayings.
சமகால வரலாறும் படைப்பாளர்களின் கருத்தியல் சார்பும்
முனைவர் வி.காயத்ரி பிரியதர்ஷினி
Writers Perspective and Contemporary History
V. Gayathri Priyadharshini
A 20th century variant of the historic novel is contemporary fiction. Contemporary Fiction is a literary genre in which the plot takes place in a setting located in the past. These facts are followed in Tamil contemporary fictions. These factors are appeared to my research. The two novels Tamil Sudhandhira Thagam and Payanam are based upon the history of Tamil Nadu. The basic idea of Sudhandhira Thagam is India’s transition from British Colonialism to Independence. The basic idea of Payanam novel is the state political party Dravidian Progress Federation was formed and the party ideologies. These novels discuss about Vanjinathan, the popular Tamil Independence activist. The two novelists approach to history is different. It reveals the ideologies dominance by the creators.
முனைவர் கோ. சரோஜா
Thirikadugam and Moral Ethics
Dr. G. Saroja
Thirikadugam is a poetic work belonging to the Pathinenkilkanakku. Thirikadugam was the analogy of the traditional herbal medicine, which uses the three herbs Sukku (dried ginger), Milagu (pepper) and Thippilli (long pepper) to cure maladies of the stomach. It similarly uses three different maxims to illustrate correct behaviour. The person those who follow will lead a prosperous life thus the main theme of the essay is to bring out the upright ethics in Thirikadugam.
இனக்குழுச் சமுதாயத்தில் பகுத்துண்ணும் பண்பு
Hospitality of Sharing Food Amidst Ethnic Society
Sangam Poetry shows down the various life styles of different ethnic groups. Sangam period might be a commonwealth society. They shared the every basic amenities of life. Hospitality of sharing food and food products is a culture of those Sangam times. The heads of the sub groups lived at the ancient period share cattle, food grains etc. they trust the cattle are the most important wealth in their lives. Today, also the tribes of Tamil Nadu; such as Irulars, Kurumbars follow the same ancient culture of sharing cattle, food and food products whenever they are in scarcity. These traits are the present evidences of the tradition followed by the classical age men and women. Hence, the article discusses about the production, sharing, economy and management of the classic tradition. It also tends to identify the hospitality of them with the evidences of literary sources.
பாவண்ணன் சிறுகதைகளில் காலம்
Time in Pavannan’s Short Stories
M. Sathick Ali
The paper analyses the Treatment of Time in the works Pavannan. The paper titled “Pavannan Sirukathaikalil Kalam” analyses the treatment of time as dealt with in the short stories of Pavannan. The focus of the analysis is the time duration taken for narrating a story and the time referred to in the narration of the story. The study has included in the paper only the selected stories which deals with the theme of time prolonging for months and years.
சீவக சிந்தாமணியில் நீர்மேலாண்மைச் சிந்தனைகள்
Thoughts of Water Management in Sindhamani
Sindhamani is one of the five epics of Tamil Nadu. The seeds of water management make us to wonder the methods followed by the people on those days. The literary records are the strongest evidence to shows how men lived an ardent life with the nature and now it seems necessary for us to compare the present life to the life of natural environment. The very first concept of “Naamagal Elambagam” exposes the circumstance, which is depending upon the water management in the environmental episode, is the basic concept of water resource. The source saves both the land and living things. Our ancestors have carved the water management in literature and inscriptions. The main context of this composition is to compare the water management the perspective of prosperity in the epic Seevaga Sindhamani.
இராமலிங்க அடிகளின் உயிரிரக்கக் கோட்பாடு
Ramalinga Adigalar’s Theory of Life
Dr. V. Thamizhmozhi
Siddhars had given many rare information to lead precious life. Many years of penance, they triumphed ‘Karama Siddhi’, ‘Yoga Siddhi’, ‘Gnana Siddhi’ and applied on Astrology, Medicine, Mantra and Rasavadha. They found many ways to live a long life. “The theory of compassion of life” (Uyir Irakka Kotpadu) is the core thought of Ramalinga Adigalar. That is the only way to reach the God. This article deals with the reasons behind Adigalar’s theory, his periodical scenario and his method of explanation of compassion in his creations.
அகநானூற்றில் முல்லை நிலமக்களும் தொழில்களும்
Occupation of Mullai Land People in Akananuru
Mr. R. Pandiyarajan
Akanannuru is one of the Sangam works. It contains the history of the Sangam period. Mullai land is one among the five land types. It is considered as forest and its allied parts. The people living in this land are engaged in cattle rearing. They used this land for growing the cow and goats. Moreover, they cultivate different variety of pulses in the land. The people of this land exchanged their products like milk, buttermilk and curd to the people in other land for some other commodities. This study aims to analyze the occupation of people in Mullai land.
தமிழன்பன் கவிதைகளில் இயற்கை செய்திகள்
Nature in the Verse of Tamilanban
Nature is God’s gift. It is bountiful, majestic, spontaneous and marvelous. The Sun, The Moon, The Earth, The Stars, Mountains, Rivers, Fountains, Oceans, Trees, Plants, Vines and every part of nature is really a surprise. Man’s life amidst nature seems to be fabulous and lively. Writer Tamilanban is an eminent scholar in using natural imagery and symbols in his works. The article tries to elicit the messages related to nature from Tamilanban’s poetic work.
வள்ளுவரின் குடிமையியலில் இன்றைய வாழ்வியல்
Today’s Life Style in Valluvar’s Civil Perspective
Good qualities mould a human being. It is highly erroneous to accept as ‘human’ only with the biological tenets of human beings. Thiruvalluvar’s eloquence can be equated only by charismatic work Thirukkural. In this present scenario, human beings hardly remember that they are one among the society and feels they own the society. The more world ‘I’ prevails to ‘our’, ‘their’ in the society, people never mind to care for other creatures and express their indifferent contemporary society with Thiruvalluvar’s concept in Porutpal. The article deciphers the virtues of life in the support of Valluvar’s concepts.
தொல்காப்பிய உரிப்பொருள் மரபும் நாட்டுப்புறப்பாடல்களும்
Ethics of Family Life in Tolkapiyam and Oral Folk Songs
Dr. Pon. Pooncholai
The human ethnicity posses extensive age old glory. It was believed that during the origin of language, human beings communicated through the natural sound sources and gestures. Human beings created spoken languages and words followed by natural sounds. From spoken languages, written languages were produced. Consequently, literatures were inscribed in manuscripts. Therefore, Oral literature was the ancestor of all written genres of literature. Until 400 BC, the most distinguished and renowned work of art regarding Tamil grammar was Tholkapiyam. It had three major classifications – letter, word and meaning. The classifications were vividly based on contemporary society and the books published before Tholkapiyam. This paper focuses on Tholkapiyar’s views on ethics of family life and the oral folk songs.
பிரபஞ்சன் புனை கதைகளில் பொருள்சார் பண்பாடு
Materialistic Culture in the Stories of Prabanjan
Man exiling himself from nature had created a materialistic society for him. He created everything out of his fear. He produced weapons, shelter and artificial materials to aid him. Man has his level elevated to a certain level by his social sense. Prabanjan, a famous writer has shown the socio-culture based society that relies on materialistic values in Pondicherry. The present study traces the materialistic society shown in Prabanjan’s works.
பெண்ணியமும் பெண்ணிய எழுத்தாளர்களின் படைப்பாளுமையும்
Feminism and Feministic Writer’s Efficiency in Writing
Many contemporary Writers discoursed about the women empowerment in their work. At the same time, women are struggling for their equality as well as they put full effort to come out from the clutches of man. Most of the women expect to get freedom, their property rights, education, and self-esteem in their life. The expectation of 20th C famous poet Bharathi has fulfilled nowadays. He expected women should come out from the unwritten rules and to stand upright with their identity. In upcoming generation, the world will be women’s control. It means they should be shining in the Education, Science, Politics, Commerce, Research, Medicine, and Law. Based on this above concepts and feministic writing and feminism is used as a tool in this paper to flash light the concept of Women’s discrimination.
தொல்காப்பியரின் எழுத்தியல் நெறி
Tolkappiyar’s Writing Methodology
Language is considered very vital and a basic one. Tolkappiyam, a treatise on language ethics and concepts is an antique source that quotes the core methodology of writing. Tolkappiyar had evinced the linguafranka states as First, Middle and the last letters of a word. The rules and norms of writing are enunciated to follow an authentic way of writing. The article traces the evidences of such writing methods in Tolkappiyar’s perspective.
நாலடியாரில் அறநெறிக்கூறுகள் கு.மதியரசி
Moral Ethics in Naladiyar
The Kalabhras dynasty ruled over the entire ancient- Tamil country between 3rd and 7th century, chiefly owing to considerable literary activity in Tamil. Most of the works grouped under the head “The Eighteen Minor Works” might have been written during this period. The Kalabhras emphasized individual discipline. Many books on disciplines (Neethinoolgal) came into existence at this time. One of the best examples of Tamil poetic work during Kalabhras period is Naladiyar. Naladiyar remains highly praised ancient didactic text in Tamil next only to the Thirukkural. Kalabhras wanted everyone to work and earn. They hated human discriminations and caste system. This article explains the method of living of human beings during Kalabhra period.
Tamil People’s life was full of Love and valor in the olden days. Those evidences can be seen in the Sangam Classics and Songs. The article aims to bring down the valorous woman in the sangam Times. Purananooru is a great evidence for such sources. In it, we can find how women fought bravely and even the kings respected them. The study explores the chivalric qualities of Sangam Women.
காலம் தோறும் மகளிரின் பணிகள்
Routine Women Tasks
Dr. V. Malik
The purpose of this study is to understand the value given to women in society. The responsibilities that the community has hoped for, the rights given to them, and the roles they are playing within their family are keep changing. Form the earlier to the present; women are changing their work line with the change of the social environment. The article plans to decode the purposed title with literary evidences.
குமரகுருபரர் பார்வையில் - முயற்சியும் பயிற்சியும்
Kumara Kuruparar- Endeavour
Dr. S. Malini
KUMARA KURUPARAR is one of the most distinguished writers among those who gave pride and praise in ARA ILAKKIYAM. Although various good deeds are embedded in his book NEEDHI NERI VILAKKAM, the article has been extended with a single word for younger generation in today's context and that word is ENDEAVOUR and how he renders it to the human society and regulations to be followed, He describes the importance of ENDEAVOUR without derailing from the path of truth. This article is based on this moral virtue.
இலக்கிய திறனாய்வுக் கொள்கை
Literary Research Concept
Tamil literature Research, as it is known today, it is relatively new field of research. It is only the last fifty years or so that are characterized by increasing readiness to apply methods of research to the solution of Language problems. Research is a vast and multi dimensional concept ordinary definitions cannot project its meaning completely Various definitions given by experts in the subject are being reproduced below in order to obtain a better understanding of its meanings. Research is endless quest for knowledge or unending search for truth. Literature is a home, if research is the address for literature. Research is the Back Bone of language it also applied different languages it is used by Researchers and Teachers, Now a Days research is third eye of the human being. The study focuses on the cadres of Tamil Literary Criticism.
தமிழ் வளர்த்த சைவம்
முனைவர். மா. வீரமுருகன்
Tamil Elevated Caivam
Dr. M. Veeramurugan
The article highlights primarily two concepts. In many countries of the world, powerful movements appear with new inventions, concepts and thoughts. If the Movement with the new ideas and thoughts creates renaissance in the minds of the people, then that movement becomes successful. In the Post Sangam Period, the Tamil Devotional Movements emerged in Tamil Nadu that had spread thoughts on pure devotion through the powerful medium called Tamil language. The Bhakthi movement achieved a far more success in the minds of Tamil people than that of the Dravidian movement in the modern period. What are the reasons behind the success of devotional movement? How did that success contribute to the development of Tamil language that had its impact until today? This article traces answers for these questions and analyses them. The article finds more about the close affinity between the Bhakti (Caiva neṟi) literature and Tamil language.
இனக்குழுச் சமூகமும் வர்க்கச் சமுதாயமும்
Ethinic Society and Class Based Social Status
The early layers of the Sangam classics will betray the fact that the Tamil society was not left out from the purview of the caste system government by birth. There is a view that the Tamil society comprised of Panar (bards), Paraiyar (drummers), Thudiyar (another kind of drummers) and Kadamban (worshipper of the Kadambu tree or sea Piratis). But this society was later over powered by the occupational groups in a physiographic setting. They were the Vedan, Kuravan – Villavan of the Kurinchi (forest tract), the Ayan, Idaiyar of the Mullai chilly tract the Ulavan – Uran of Marutham (agricultural tract) and the Paratavar – Minavar of the Neithal (littoral tract). To prove this, we have explained the social system of Tamil society in this article.
சிலம்பில் பதிந்த சமணம்
Traces of Samanam in Silapathikaram
The Epic Silappathikaram is against injustice and it is also known as the epic of revolution. Sure, it explains the day-to-day life of ordering people. The Author Elango elaborately explains the customs and conventions of the then Tamil Nadu and the worship methods of Samanam, Yakshi, Panja parameters, God and Goddess worship, Siddha’s, Arugar, Achariyar and worship of Gurus. Elango explains the major aspects of types of fasting known as Poyyamai, Kollamai, Adultery, Lust and greediness. He explains the paths of Bakthi, Mukthi and Motcha. This article details the core ideas oriented to it.
தமிழ் மொழியின் தோற்றமும் வளர்ச்சியும்
முனைவர் கு. ரதீஸ்வரி
The Origin of Tamil Language and it’s Development
Dr. G. Ratheeswari
A recorded Tamil literature has been documented in the Indian sub-continent for over 2000 years. The earliest period of Tamil literature is Sangam literature. It is dated from ca. 300 BC to AD 300. It has the oldest literature among the Dravidian languages. The most primitive epigraphic records found on rock edicts and 'hero stones' dates back from the 3rd century BC. Nearly, 55% of the epigraphical inscriptions (55,000) found by the Archaeological Department Survey of India are in the Tamil language. Among the Indian languages, Tamil has the most antique non-Sanskrit Indian literature. The Scholars categorize the attested history of the language into three broad periods: Old Tamil (300 BC–AD 700), Middle Tamil (700–1600) and Modern Tamil (1600–present). It is in the modern scientific era, at many countries in the archeological survey, found the old Tamil Brahmi inscriptions. Even the Sumerian language is an archaic Tamil. In November 2007, an excavation at Quseir-al-Qadim revealed Egyptian pottery dating back to first century BC with ancient Tamil Brahmi inscriptions. Scholars like Alex Collier and Noam Chomsky puts their opinion that Tamil may be the oldest language and the one language spoken all over the world.
பெருங்கதையில் யூகியன் நட்பு நெறிகள்
Friendship Moral Codes of Ugi in Perunkathai
Among birds, animals and human beings, friendship is an integral part in their lives. From the days of culture had started to the present times, the stage of friendship was changed to various levels. Every state of friendship is considered very lofty. Many had sacrificed their life for friendship and it can be understood by literary evidences. Today, friendship is considered very dangerous but the friendship portrayed in Udayanan, of Ugi is most exemplanary. If today, Ugi like friend appear in anybody’s life his life must be very good. The main scope of the article is to decipher friendship in the perspective of Ugi of Udayanan.
Tamil Language and Syllabus
Syllabus is a part of education. It is an assortment of educational pedagogy. It is a one that is modified by the suggestions of educationalists, Teachers, government, and parents. It is a pre-planned one and that is the syllabus. Therefore, the article is to find out the impact and paradigm shift of syllabus on Part I Language (Tamil) and in educational medium.
Psychological Thoughts in Ve. Iraianbu’s Writings
Each character is hidden with lot of liveliness and creativity, like eminence is out of sight in each art. Even as we take away unwanted elements from a stone we can get an excellent shape of a sculpture; likewise and character is molded with the aid of shaping his weakness. Iraianbu exposes this attribute through his writings. One cannot actually examine any art out of compulsion; no formation will show up out of coercion or command. The pattern getting via violence will actually create damaged hearts. Individuals who prefer accomplishing splendid pursuits they should go through hardships and difficulties. They love even difficult paintings and exhaustions of their lives. The study explores such insights in the writings of Iraianbu.