தமிழ்மொழி மற்றும் இலக்கிய பன்னாட்டு ஆய்விதழ்

வாழ்த்துரை

IJTLLS எனும் பன்னாட்டு தமிழ் இதழை இனிதே தொடங்கி நடத்துவதில் மிகவும் பெருமையடைகிறோம் . தமிழ் மொழி மற்றும் இலக்கியத்தின் தொன்மையினை வெளிக்கொணரும் வகையில் இவ்ஆய்விதழ் அமைந்துள்ளது. தமிழ் ஆய்வாளர்கள், பேராளர்கள் மற்றும் ஆர்வலர்கள் தங்கள் ஆய்வை இயற்றி ஒப்புமை மற்றும் உயர்வு பெற இது ஓர் அரிய களமாகும். இது இரண்டாம் இதழின் முதல் வெளியீடாகும். என் பணி தமிழ் பணி செய்து கிடப்பதுவே என்பதற்கிணங்க ஆராய்ச்சி மாணவர்கள் மற்றும் பேராளர்களால் சிறந்த ஆய்வு இருமொழிகளில் (தமிழ் மற்றும் ஆங்கிலம்) ஆய்வு கட்டுரைகளை கொண்டிருப்பதாகும். தமிழ் வளர்ச்சிக்காக அதன் தொன்மையை உலக அரங்கிற்கு எடுத்துச் செல்வதே இவ்ஆய்விதழின் நோக்கமாக கொண்டாளப்பட்டுள்ளது. மேன்மேலும் இப்பன்னாட்டு இதழ்வளர்ச்சியடைய அனைவரின் சிறந்த ஆய்வு கட்டுரைகள் வரவேற்கப்படுகின்றன.

நன்றி

-பதிப்புக்குழு

 
 

புறநானூற்றில் பெருமிதம்

அ.அக்ஸிலியாமேரி


Magnanimousness in Purananooru

A. Auxchiliyamary

Abstract

Every human being have developed a large extent in using their Intelligence in their major part of their life. Human is composed of feelings, emotions and knowledge. Human Life is developed from barbaricness to civilised state. According to the Great Tamil Scholar Tholkappiar, human is the only being which uses the common sense to differentiate in whole sphere of life such as Education, Gift, Fame and Courage. We are proud to be a human being in all the ways. When we have all these our emotions and feelings developed in many ways, it will be useful in developing a befitting society. This is what we could see the truth in Sangam Literature ‘Purananuru’. The paper traces such virtues from the Sangam work.

Keywords: Magnanimousness in Purananooru, Tamil Literature, Tholkappiar

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நாட்டுப்புறப்பாடல்களில் பெண்களின் நிலைப்பாடுகள்

முனைவர் தே.அசோக்


The State of Women in Folk Songs

Dr. D.Ashok

Abstract

The life of other beings is enhanced by the openness of the human race to its worldview. Languages can be said to be the peak of humanity's thinking. Language helps to show the superiority of the human race in other organisms. Music in such languages makes the language rich, soothing, soothing and comforting. In that way, folk music is forever special. Folk songs get their place in folk music. Folk songs convey many good ideas and feelings. The songs also record women's lives in early life. Women are forced into folklore, burdened and neglected. Women are given a great deal of importance in romantic life in the villages. Love for them is appreciated. Are much loved. After this romantic life, it is also necessary to consider whether women are neglected in the course of time. The tribulations of the village women were known through their songs. After this, the folk must cross the boundaries of the urban and the masculine feminine, changing in thought, word and deed, and love relationships. The above folk songs can be an opportunity to make amends for this.

Keywords: Tamil Folk music and songs, Village women life and oppression, Romantic life

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அகநானூறு குறிஞ்சிப்பாடல்களில் உள்ளுறை

சீ.அலக்ஸ் ஜேக்கப்


Ullurai in Agananooru Kurunji Songs

S. Alex Jacob

Abstract

All sangam Literature are based on policies and principles of grammer. Theories found in Tolkapiyam are very much helpful to research ‘Ullurai’ ‘Brevity’ and its characteristics. The words or matter that we can’t able to speak in outward can be easily able to speak by using ullurai. So, its act as a teachnique to bring out the mistake and guilties found inside the person without being hurt to him. The aim of ullurai is to speak short and sweet, but it helps to understand lot even from those short speech. There are many ullurais in Agananaooru ‘Kurunji songs’. This research paper explains the Ullurais found in Agananaooru ‘Kurunji songs’ with its characteristics and advantages in detail.

Keywords: Tamil Folk music and songs, Village women life and oppression, Romantic life

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தமிழ்ப் புதுக்கவிதைகளின் மூன்று முகங்கள்

முனைவர் பா.இரேவதி


The Three Facets of Modern Poetry in Tamil

Dr. P.Revathi

Abstract

In the 20th century, the impact of Western literature has had a profound change in Tamil targeting. The poem thus gained a new revival by liberating itself from the subject of verse. The purpose of this article is to analyze the history of poetry in three periods. The history of Tamil revision can be divided into three periods in its developmental stage. They are 1. 1930-1950, 2. 1950-1970 and 3. 1970. Hence, the history of modern poetry begins within the period (1930-1950). Under the influence of Bharathi's 'verse poem', many poets began to write such poetry. But they did not become Bharati's 'sights', but they continued to try to write it down, without any issue. The paper delves deep to decode these facts with related concepts.

Keywords: Three Facets of Modern Poetry, Tamil Poetry

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வெண்சீர் ஈற்றசை நிரையசை இயற்றே என்ற நூற்பாவின் உரை: சிக்கலும் தீர்வும்

முனைவர் அ.உமாமகேஸ்வரி


Explanation of the Verse Venseer Eettrasai Niraiasai Eyatre: Problems and Solution

Dr. A. Umamaheswari

Abstract

The verse line of Tholkappiam- “Venseer Eettrasai Niraiasai Eyatre” has many controversies and explanations in many facets by various scholars. Scholars such as Ilampooranar, Prof. Nachinarkiniyar, Su. Balasundaram, A. Sivalinganar had written explanations for it. It has had many oppositiuons and the paper tries to find out the problems and solution of the taken concept.

Keywords: Tholkappiam, Verse, Venseer Eettrasai Niraiasai Eyatre, Problems and Solution

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மருதத்திணை உள்ளுறை உவமையில் அழகியல்

க.கருப்பசாமி


Brevity in Decoding of Beauty in Marutham Thinai

K. Karuppasamy

Abstract

The world is full of nature. In Sangam Literature, there are songs related to inward and outward states of life. They mostly deal with human lives and nature. We can understand what was in those peoples’ minds by understanding these poems. These songs speaks much more of the love life between the couples. Many songs sung at the ‘Marutha Thinai’ are having brevity in explaining beauty. Hence, the objective of this research paper is to find the theme related concepts.

Keywords: Brevity, Decoding Beauty, Marutham Thinai

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கவிஞர் ஆண்டாள் பிரியதர்ஷினியின் கவியும் கருவும்

முனைவர் கே.பி.கனிமொழி


‘Theme and Poetry’ of the Poetess Aandaal Priyadharshini

Dr. K.B.Kanimozhi

Abstract

Aandal priyadarshini, one of the Tamil Feminist Creators, has simultaneously developed herself as a Feminist poet and writer. She was born on October 5, 1962 to the eminent poet parents Nellai Ganapathi and Suppulakshmi Ganapathi at Thamirabharani. She is a poet, short story writer, novelist, essayist and T.V show producer and so on. Aandaal Priyadarshini’s essay ‘kavi and karu’ is the theme that the women should express her fundamental rights and to lead society to live with self determination. In her poetry, she has a unique perspective on social consciousness, Innovation and humanity that redeem human values. The article discusses on the themes oriented to it.

Keywords: Theme and Poetry, Poetess Aandaal Priyadharshini, Feminism

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சங்க இலக்கியத்தில் விழாக்கள்

V.கார்த்திகாயினி


Festivals in Sangam Literature

V. Karthigayini

Abstract

Tamil Nadu is known for its magnificent festivals outlined with rangolis, bright skills, flowers, temples celebrations and of course lots of festival food in the sangam period. Pongal, the festival of harvest and spring, thanking lord Indiran and lord EL (the Sun), comes on 14/15 of January (Thai Maatham). Indira vizha, the festival for the rain, celebrated for one full month starting from the full moon in ( Chitirai ) and completed on the full moon in vaikaasi, it is epitomized in the epic Cilapatikaram in detail. Thiruvonam or Onam is the birthday of Mayon (Lord Vishnu). ‘Thiruonam’ is a group of stars which are bright together and resemble like an eagle, Lord Vishnu’s mount is Garuda (Eagle), so the day was considered as the birthday of Lord Vishnu. The people of Pandya kingdom celebrated it for 10 days. That was mentioned in Madurai Kaanji, one of the Pathupattu books. Thirupallandu by periyazhwar and the song of Thirugnanasambandhar in Thevaram deals with the festivals in the age old traition. An equivalent to widely celebrated festival of Kartigai Deepam festival is inarguably an important festival in Tamilnadu with has its mention in the sangam liberature. The present paper elucidates the evidences from the sources.

Keywords: Festivals, Sangam Literature, Tamil Culture

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பாரதி போற்றிய பெண்மை

நா.கிருஷ்ணராஜ்


Feminism Glorified by Bharathi

N. Krishnaraj

Abstract

Feminism is an important role in human life. Bharathi visualised the new women as an emanation of Godesses Shakthi, willing helpmate of man to build a new earth through co-operatile edeavour. Bharathi is considered as one of the pioneers of Modern Tamil Literature. Bharathi was also against caste system. He decided that there were only two castes men and women and nothing more than that. He opposed child marriage and he belived in women rights, gender equality and women emancipation. The article probes to find feminism in Bharathi’s ideology.

Keywords: Feminism, Glorified by Bharathi

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சிலப்பதிகாரத்தில் மூவேந்தர்கள் பற்றிய பதிவுகள்

முனைவர் நா.குமாரி


Registration on Triumvirs in Silappathikaram

Dr. N.Kumari

Abstract

The greatest epic literature of Tamil Language is Silappathikaram, it speaks of Tamil Dhesiyam and it includes ancient history, politics, society, community, art and it’s status. Muthamizh has a special glee and glitter. The greatness & honour of Silappathikaram & muthamizh are lightfully belonged to the three great kings. That is of the great triumvirs Chera, Chola and Pandiya kings. The Cholas are shown as luxurious and brave ones and the state of the business men class is clearly portrayed through the prime characters. The nation of the king Pandiya contained of all the natural resources like trees, plants and bushes. The real fact that the honourable king Neduncheziyan sacrificed his soul for his own kingdom and truth. The history of Silappathikaram reveals that the great king Cheran Chenkuttuvan won great success in the Bharatha and he brought the boulder from the Himalayas to Tamilnadu. He also gave a special event for the people to celebrate by sculpting the statue of Kannaki. The poet Elango Adigal, glorifies the kingdom of chola when he starts to sing the literature of Silappathikaram. In the kingdom of Chola, it was seen that the kingdom was well developed and wealthy, the patriot king ruled the nation in a very great manner and they formed five unions to rule the nation in a great manner. The triumvirs are much portrayed in the epic Silappathikaram and has mentioned about their kingdom, wars and donation to peoples.

Keywords: Registration on Triumvirs, Chera, Chola Pandias, Silappathikaram

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பாவேந்தர் பார்வையில் சங்க இலக்கியம்

முனைவர் அ.கோவிந்தராஜன்


Registration on Triumvirs in Silappathikaram

Dr. A. Govindharajan

Abstract

On Sangam Literature, Paventhar Bharathidasan reflected several ideas and elicited indepth meanings of Sangam Literature through his works. He praised the lifestyle of Sangam period and he took it to heights, and shared love and happiness from it with the people through his works. He emphasized the ‘aram’ and made people think about well being and to be honest. He insisted on forgetting all our sorrows and be happy always is the chief idea of his poems which are predominantly based on Sangam Literature.

Keywords: Aram, Sangam Literature, Love and Happiness, Paventhar Bharathidasan.

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நாலடியார் வலியுறுத்தும் இயற்கை வாழ்வு

மு.சங்கர் முனிசாமி


Environmentally Friendly life Emphasized by Naladiyar

M. Sankar Munisamy

Abstract

The world is emphasizing the awareness to preserve nature. The main reason for this is the fear that the humankind will be destroyed without nature. The U.N., the largest organization in the world, has initiated serious measures to maintain the nature of this earth. It regularly advises member countries to reduce the organic excretion. The Tamils since the beginning of their civilization live their life with nature. Our literatures also emphasize this. The Naladiyar, the intellectual creation of the Tamils, still practical in today's scientific era. It teaches us to live a natural life. The objective of this research paper is to emphasise ways that have been taught by Naladiyar towards an environmentally friendly life.

Keywords: Naladiyar, nature, natural life, environmentally friendly

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தமிழர்களின் நாட்டுப்புறக் கலைகளும் அதன் கோட்பாடுகளும்

முனைவர் இரா.சசிகலா


Folklore of the Tamil People and its Norms

Dr. R.Sasikala

Abstract

Art or culture of a country is a marvellous instrument for reflecting its society. Not only does the art act as the medium for entertainment but also acts as the medium for communication and culture. The art is a reflection of our ‘powerful feelings and thoughts’. Especially our folk arts reflect our heritage which has been deeply rooted in ourselves and our soil. We can obviously perceive our ancestral beliefs, hopes, feelings, thoughts and their habits through these folk arts which are the sources of our society. These folk arts, otherwise called as ‘rural arts’, have instrumented for communication and have been the sources for our renowned culture. It is noteworthy that various media have been flourishing to enhance the monstrous and tremendous technological growth of communication and entertainment which cannot be denied at any cost. Change is the only permanent thing in the world. So there must be a need for change at all times. At the same time, there is no need to put aside our opacity of our heritage and the conventional or traditional arts. Instead, we must protect these traditional values which are considered to be our duty and responsibility. No countries which are enriched with their nanotechnologies have culled their traditional arts but they have made them as their bases for all kinds of their growth and development. The paper traces the folk tradition of the Tamils and the norms laid to them.

Keywords: Folklore of the Tamil People, Folklore and its Norms

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பெண்களுக்கு எதிரான வன்முறைகள்

முனைவர் தி.சண்முகராஜா


Violence against Women

Dr.T.Sanmugaraja

Abstract

Home, town and country women are the main reason for maintaining the position of a sister, wife and mother. From the time of man’s appearance until today, if society has been in good state or in trouble, it may be of women. Women are instrumental in creating the ancient culture. Therefore, the goddesses of prosperity are the female deities in many countries. The The Tamil Godesses, Greek goddesses Sycildetona, Delphi are the Goddesses of women, mostly of Fertility or prosperity or of terror. Women who are supposed to be goddesses have been abused or murdered by a few hypocrities during the times.This article examines the violences against women.

Keywords: Survey, Violence against women

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சங்ககால மகளிர் வாழ்ந்த சமுதாய சூழல்

ச.சரவணன்


The Social Setup of the Women of the Sangam Age

S.Saravanan

Abstract

In the history of the Tamils, Sangam Literature is the Golden Period that show the moral vigour of the people in all walks of life. Tamil lives are endowed with the moral virtues through the traditional values. Women are the integral part of the life. Lots of evidences are to be noted on the participation of the learned women in the Sangam times. Women in Sangam times, society in those times and the setup of family are discussed in the paper. Hence, the paper traces the social setup and the state of women in the Sangam Period.

Keywords: Social Setup of the Women, Women of the Sangam Age

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ஆவுடையார்கோயில் வட்டாரக் கோயில்களில் தேவகோட்டச் சிற்பங்கள்

முனைவர் செ.சாந்தி


The Devakotta Sculptures of the Temples around Avudayar Kovil

Dr.S.Santhi

Abstract

In temple studies, the study of the Devakotta Scluptures are one of the areas of interest. It mainly deals with the elegant art of sculpting and the implied meaning in it. They are the artifacts of the temples of the Tamil Temple tradition. The word ‘Devakottam’ denotes the statues around the Sanctum Sanotorium of the temple. It is in vogue from the Chola period, later Pandias, Cheras and the Pallavas and the idea of the paper takes the Devakotta statues in and around the temples of Avudayar Kovil. Hence, the objective of this research paper is to find out the artefacts.

Keywords: Sculptures, Temples around Avudayar Kovil

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ஆற்றுப்படை இலக்கியங்களில் இயற்கையின் சிறப்பு

பொ.சிவசங்கரி


The Uniqueness of Nature in ‘Aatrupadai’Literature

P.Sivasankari

Abstract

In the article we can see the importance of nature described in Atrupadai Literature one of the “Pathupattu” collection in sangam literature. New ideas about the harmony between nature and people of Sangam Period are also been described in the paper. Imageries about sun, rain, land, flower and mountains by the sangam poets were also pointed out with noted evidences. Hence, this paper unfolds the significance and role of nature in the chosen domain area.

Keywords: Aatrupadai Books, Nature, Importance of Nature in ‘Aatrupadai’ Literature

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ஊடகங்களில் தமிழ்ப் பண்பாடு

ம..சியாமளா


Tamil Culture in Media

M.Syamala.

Abstract

The impact of social media on people and their behaviour is enormous. In my opinion, this impact is predominantly positive, but it must be borne in mind that there may be negative aspects as well. There is too much unfiltered rubbish in social media like Tamil T.V, Dramas, Movies, Radio, Internet oriented apps and websites and Whatsup, Face Book or Twitter- therefore it enforces many stupid and uniformed discussions. This article explains that poor online behaviour is now affecting real life. Social interactions spurred on when high profile people engage in negative communication in online.

Keywords: Tamil Culture in Media, Journalism, Internet, Modern Generation

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நாட்டுப்புறச் சிறுவர் பாடல்களில் சமுதாய அமைப்பு

முனைவர் அ.சுகந்தி அன்னத்தாய்


Social Order in Folkloristic Children Songs

Dr.A.Suganthi annathai

Abstract

The impact of social media on people and their behaviour is enormous. In my opinion, this impact is predominantly positive, but it must be borne in mind that there may be negative aspects as well. There is too much unfiltered rubbish in social media like Tamil T.V, Dramas, Movies, Radio, Internet oriented apps and websites and Whatsup, Face Book or Twitter- therefore it enforces many stupid and uniformed discussions. This article explains that poor online behaviour is now affecting real life. Social interactions spurred on when high profile people engage in negative communication in online.

Keywords: Naladiyar, Nature, Natural Life, Environmentally Friendly

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குறுந்தொகை மாந்தர் கூந்தற் பெருமை

கோ.சுகன்யா


The Pride of Women’s Tress in Kurunthokai

G.Suganya

Abstract

This paper presents the important aspects and vital role of ‘Manthaar Kunthal’ (hair of wwomen) in the twentieth century. It also talks about how it was described in the Epic “Kurunthogai”with different hair styles adopted in the olden days. The various terms used for the hair styles are quoted in the Sanga Illakkiyam are listed as well as evidenced that how the kunthal was associated in many ways in the ancient days. It was revealed that the kunthal colour had compared with black soil and also equalized as the pillow for their spouse. It is also highlighted that the kunthal has treated as the symbol for love and some of their cultural activities. Moreover, it is briefed on the methods that are used to beautify their hairs by the ancient Tamil ladies with cited examples.

Keywords: Kurunthogai,Women Hair style, Kunthal (Hair) as symbol of love

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கேரள நாட்டார் வழக்காறுகளில் வேலன் வெறியாட்டு

முனைவர் நா.செந்தில்


‘Velan Veriaattu’ (Fiery Dance) in Kerala Folklore

Dr. N.Senthil

Abstract

Sangam literature is the compilation of Tamil poems, which were written in the ancient period. These compiled poems were written on the basis of type of land (Thinai) they had lived. These poems are still keeping their individual traditions of people within the boundaries as mentioned in the Tholkappiyam. Nowadays those boundaries had broken. The region 'Tamizhagam' mentioned in the Tholkapiyanm included today's Tamil Nadu, Kerala, South East of Karnataka and Southern region of Andhra Pradesh. Slang, Culture, Functional practices of people belonged to the region 'Tamizhagam' have changed in different aspects now, but not completely. It is interesting to note that, even now some of the people follows those slang, culture, functional practices, etc. especially the folklore of Kerala. If we compare the folklore of Kerala with Sangam Literatures, we can realize the cultural maturity of Tamil, traditional continuations and the changes within it. This chapter deals with the traditional folk performances like Theyyattam of Kerala and its relation to Sangam references in particularly the relations of Velan Veriyaattu and Theyyaattam.

Keywords:‘Velan (Priest of Lord Muruga) Veriaattu (Fiery Dance)’, Kerala Folklore

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பாரதியின் பன்முகச் சுவடுகள்

முனைவர் கோ.செந்தில் செல்வி


Bharathi’s Multifaceted Trails

Dr.G.Senthil selvi

Abstract

Bharathi is a man of different dimensions. He had struggled for the freedom of our motherland. He was a great reformer who wanted to abolish caste system. As an activist, he had written many developmental schemes for country’s ancient, courtesy, religious, poetry, art and philosophy. His literary works brings us the religious view, patriotic view and literary view of our country. Bharathi had created the base for National identity security, family, women education, women development and society’s reformation. He had worked and struggled hard for the development of Tamil society and Tamil language. This essay has experimented on all the achievements of Bharathi entitled “Bharathi’s Multifaceted trails”

Keywords:Bharathi,Multifaceted Trails

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குறிஞ்சி நில மக்களின் வாழ்வியல்

முனைவர் இரா.சொர்ணபமிலா


Life Style of the People in Kurunji Land

Dr.R.Sornapemila

Abstract

The ancient Sangam literature had witnessed the life style of the people in five phases of lands as Kurunji, Mullai, Neithal, Palai and Marutham. The first land surface is mountains and hills and the places is termed as kurunchi. Kurunchil and in particular deals a lot about nature. Life style and culture of the people of Kurunji is bonded with more of nature. Nature and their life style became inseparable and they dwell in a form where both intermingled together. The staple food of them was honey, root food, fruits and vegetable which they found humpty in their natural surroundings. They prepared their costume from the barks of the trees and leaves which again proved to be very natural. They lived in shelters made of bamboos and the roof are thatched with grass. They lived in the valleys of the mountains and made the land into cultivable land in convenient with their agricultural operation. They grow their own food cultivated, harvested and used for food. Both men and women were found to be brave and hard working as they were experts in hunting and foresting. Nature was their belief and so they worshipped the same as their supreme power. They loved nature immensely. Hence the dwellers of Kurunchi lived a life style to care, love and rear the places around the mountain and mountain valleys.

Keywords:Life Style, Kurunji Land, Classical Tamil Land, Society

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இசைப் புகழோங்கும் நாலாயிர திவ்விய பிரபந்தம்

கி.தேன்மொழி


The Musical Fame of Naalaayira Thivya Prabantham

K.Thenmozhi

Abstract

We cherish the Tamil language as it is the best of the three in the poetry, music, drama. Tholkappiyam and Sangam literature show that both music and musical instruments are intertwined with the lives of the Tamil people. During the Bhakti literary period, the Nayanas of the Saivites and the Vaishnavites were cultivating musical Tamil. Music is no longer the apex of the Panniru Alvaar of Naalaayira Thivya Prabantham enlightenment; Kannan has sung a great deal of music as a musical instrument. They have sung the traditional songs in the song 'Prabantham'. There are many songs that have a tradition of folklore. This article is titled "Naalaayira Thivya Prabantham of Music." Greetings in this article include world classical and musical background, musical instrument, Poochi kattuthal, Panthuvali ragam, Asaaveri Ragam, Pilahari ragam, Yamuna kalayani ragam and paga dhalam, adhi dhalam, Jambai dhalam, Neeradal, flute, thumburuveenai, kinnaram, Veingulal of instrumens, Multiple tools, etc. The reason for being sung such songs is that they should continue to touch people's minds with a sense of humor. Also, this article explores the way in which the music of the music and the development of the music through the songs of Thirumaal was praised by the off-the-beaten songs in the deep ‘Naalaayira Thivya Prabantham’.

Keywords:Musical Fame of Naalaayira Thivya Prabantham

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தஞ்சைவாணன் கோவையில் கற்பியல் காட்டும் பிரிவு நிலைகள்

முனைவர் க.நாகேஸ்வரி


Chastity and Valediction Forbidding in Thanjaivanan Kovai

Dr. G.Nageswari

Abstract

Kovai Literature is one of the minor literary genre in Tamil Literature. Thanjaivanan Kovai gets special attestation for its delineation of Tamil cultural traits. In Kovai literature, secret love, marriage and chastity are the three inner segments in Thanjaivan Kovai. This article specifies about the virtues found in the selected literature

Keywords:Valediction Forbidding, Thanjaivanan Kovai, Tamil literature

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சங்க இலக்கியம் உணர்த்தும் பொருளின் முதன்மை

முனைவர் ஜ.பபீதா


The Importance of Wealth (porul) as Enunciated by Sangam Literature

Dr. J.Babitha

Abstract

Sanga Ilakkiyam (Literature) is the way to learn about ancient Tamils and understand their life. The spirit expresses the cultural environment of the people of that time and the noble nature of giving to others. In the qualified Sangam literature of monastic literature, the world has a lofty purpose that no other language has, and that it has the quintessence of charity, meaning, pleasure, and the life of all, and the life of all. All these elements are recorded in the human minds through literature, so that all people should live with the heavenly life of the hereafter with the worldly life of this world. The people of the Sangha have come to realize that it is the primary means of fulfilling the need, to indulge in pleasure, to make ARAM for others, to cause suffering and to destroy the enemy. The ancestors thought that the wealth they earned from their efforts was greater than the wealth they sought. The war plays a major role in fulfilling material needs. They gave great meaning to the war and gave it to others. And so did the admiration. This article explores the essence of the subject, highlighting the need for material to further the existence and consciousness of world life.

Keywords:Importance of Wealth (porul), Enunciated in Sangam Literature

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அநீதியான வெப்ப மிகுதியதை அகற்றிக் காத்திடும் நீதியாகிய மழை

முனைவர் செ.பாண்டியம்மாள்


The Just Rain that Saves from the Unjust Heat

Dr. S.Pandiammal

Abstract

When the heat is high, the sky becomes clouded and by condensation process the rain falls. It is the nature of the rain, when the heat of the heat is so great. There is no doubt that everything described in this article is an event in our whole life with nature. Thiruvalluvar has a broader purpose in depicting nature and it power on us. His concept on rain reveals us how rain is very important in our life. Today, in the extreme level of pollution in all levels and the deforestation deliberately made by the human beings has led to the earth in deep water crisis.

Keywords:Just Rain, Unjust Heat, Thirukkural, Thiruvalluvar, Importance of rain

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அகநானூற்றில் வரலாற்றூச் செய்திகள்

முனைவர் இரா.பாலகிருஷ்ணன்


Historical Matters Found in Agananooru

Dr.R.Balakrishnan

Abstract

Ancient Literature helps us to know the Tamil history. This Ancient Literature consists of so many literary works like Purananooru, Pathitrupathu etc. Apart from these two Agananooru was the famous historical work. Agananooru deals about the life of Chera, Chola and Pandia Kings and it says about famous early voting method- kudavolai system. Agananooru also convey the relationship of Greek people with Tamil peoples and old economic system with Egypt. It also deals about the history of Nandas (North Indian People) and Yavanas (Foreigners) who came here for trade.

Keywords:Historical Matters, Agananooru, Ancient Tamil Literature

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கலித்தொகை பகரும் திணைமயக்கச் சூழலியல் - ஓர் மீள்பார்வை

சு.பிரகாஷ்


Ecology Elicited by Kalithogai- An Overview

S.Prakash

Abstract

Ecology’ is a science that describes the relationship between an organism and its environment. As the ancestral thinking of the Tamil ancestors came to be known, the close connection between the Tamils and the ecology be known better. This article is a re-imagining of the ecology of conservation. It discusses the importance of our heroic dynasty, the ecological state of the peoples of the Sangam, the importance given to the abolish famine. This is a basic study from the literature ‘Kalithogai’ to understand the ecology of the peoples of the Tamil society, the nucleus of which is the most basic. Exploring the way in which these sources interpret the ecology of the Tamil people of the time, the way in which the natural behavior of the people living on the land, and the interplay of the elements. This article analyses the biological changes of the natural environment through the meteorological state of the material.

Keywords: Ecology, Kalithogai- An Overview

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பத்துப்பாட்டில் ஆடை கலாச்சாரம்

முனைவர் த.புவனேஸ்வரி


Traditional Dress Code in Pathuppattu

Dr. D.Buvaneswari

Abstract

Through this article, we can understand the traditional dress code of ancient Tamil people. Dress is basically needed for a human being. The people’s dress not only show their culture but also show how they got developed gradually. Maintaining the dress and its design shows the imaginary skill of the ancient people. According to the quality and quantity of the people, the dress code gets changed. The dress resembles the wealth of their background. From its earliest stages to till now, the textiles department has undergone many changes also in the history of Tamil people.

Keywords:Dress maintenance, Designing the Dress, Dress of the Artists, Basic needs.

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சங்க இலக்கியங்களில் முல்லைத்திணையின் வாழ்வியல் கட்டமைப்பு

ப.மணிகண்டன்


Livelihood Framework of Mullai People in Sangam Litearture

P.Manikandan

Abstract

Sangam literature in one of the ancient Literature. We can see that Tamil People’s habitual environment and its structure from the Sangam period to the present day. Based on that, this article describes the environment, livelihood and their structure of Mullai Land (Forest and Forest related areas) people from Sangam Literature. Descriptions about Mullai land by literary scholars and glossaries have also been given out for clear understanding. Accordingly, Mullai land’s livelihood framework has been described in detail in this article.

Keywords:Sangam Literature, Mullai Land, Livelihood, Environment, Structure

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குறிஞ்சித்திணையின் தொழில்கள்

முனைவர் தி.மணிமொழி


Occupation in Kurinji Land

Dr.T.Manimozhi

Abstract

Life appeared after the world appeared. Tamils are the most common species of origin. The Tamils lived in harmony with nature. By treating plants as their species and other life as their own. There are no works against nature which can be traced through Tamil literature. The Tamils lived their lives by naming and conforming to the natural environment, in accordance with its innate nature. The mountain of the hill is the first place in the land of the ancient people. Though many scholars have sung on the theme, Kabilar is most impressed by the land of the Kurinji Land and its bountiness. Kabilar sand on the whole land, nature of the hills, rainforests, plants, animals, etc. From the songs sung by such people, we can get news on the occupation such as pig hunting, cattle throwing, cropping, crop rotation, mountain farming, milking, climatic equipment, baiting and trading have been revealed. The purpose of this article is to examine the occupation of the Kurinji land.

Keywords:Sangam Tamil People and environment, Kabilar Songs, Work in Kurinji Land

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சங்க இலக்கியத்தில் குலக்குறி பண்பாட்டு மரபுகள்

கு.மதியரசி


Insignia Cultural Traditions in the Sangam Literature

G.Mathiarashi

Abstract

It is hardly to say that worship and worship seemed to be an expression of human knowledge. It made the man unconscious of his proclamation and turned the worship of Unanswerable Sources. The Sun, the rain, the manifestation of Creativity are the female gods, rivers and protective capital. In the above case, this article has stated that the worship of the sacramental deviations from the Sangam Literature.

Keywords: Insignia, Cultural Tradition, Sangam Literature

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பழனி கிரந்த எண் சீதாசக்கர கல்வெட்டு ஆய்வு

முனைவர் இரா.மனோகரன்


An Inveatigation on Palani Grantha Pillar Inscription and Sita Chakaram

Dr. R.Manoharan

Abstract

We know that those of Tamil origin has excelled in the arts, literature, science and the realm of excellence in astronomy and mathematics. In particular, Aryapattar, Bhaskarar and Ramanujar are among the world's top mathematicians. Some poets gave their mathematical knowledge to the world in their poetic and formulaic form. They have been debated in the courts as puzzles. Some were used in astrology. The Palani walls were inscribed with murals and inscriptions to protect the victims. The purpose of this article is to analyze and document such a grandiose Sitasakkara inscription of Palani.

Keywords:Grantha Inscription, Sita Chakaram, Sculpture, Sudoku.

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மானிட மதிப்புகளின் வரலாறு தொல்காப்பியமும் அகநநானூறும்

ந.மாலதி


History of Human Values in Tholkappiam and Agananooru

N.Malathi

Abstract

Tholkappiam stands as an epitome of human lifestyle, whereas values play a vital role in the life of human beings which is meant in various way such as goal, discipline and responsibility. Real life experience, minute power, intense self-consciousness, and valuable thoughts of languge are the characteristic feature that helps in recognizing the values of human being. Hence, Tholkappiam incites the feelings of human being within organism and neglects the differentiality and erokes intensive feeling of relationship between them. Consequently, in Tamil literature objectivity dominates in the society and also the aesthetic quality and the gracious mind ends in perfection, and the struggles faced by a man in helping his family and public services paves way for happiness. Therefore, the development of knowledge and culture is known tactfully and thus human values help in cooperating and uplifting sangam grammar and literature.

Keywords:Tholkappiam, Agananooru, Values.

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தமிழ் இலக்கியங்களில் பரத்தையரின் வாழ்க்கை

ச.முஹம்மது அஸ்ரின்


Life of Prostitutes in Tamil Literature

S.Muhammad Asrin

Abstract

The lines from the Sangam literatures like Tholkapiyam and the Ettuththokai texts clearly describes the disputes caused by the prostitutes between Thalaivan and Thalaivi. The Pathinenkeezkkanakku texts which are appeared after Sangam literatures, forcing the entire society to avoid maintaining relationships with prostitutes and the Devotional texts insists to renunciate the life in the world to get happy life in the heaven. The article delineates the life of prostitutes as seen in Tamil literature.

Keywords:Life of Prostitutes, Tamil Literature

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சங்க இலக்கியத்தில் அன்னமும் ஆந்தையும்

சி. யுவராஜ்


Swan and Owl in Sangam Literature

S.Yuvaraj

Abstract

The fond (or) love towards birds and the knowledge to know about them can be seen through various poet’s work and about people’s livelihood in Sangam literature. The characteristic and emotional values of Swan and Owl were written. With hero and heroine’s feelings, love and activities, we can study their characteristics mentioned in the poems. With the mentioned birds the poets gave a picturesque denotation of day and night period. From this article we can understand the values of every life amidst birds and their characteristic features portrayed by the poets.

Keywords:Swan and Owl, Sangam literature

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சங்க இலக்கியங்களில் உளவியல் பரிமாணங்கள்

ப.ராகசுதா & முனைவர் ம.செந்தில்குமார்


Psychological Dimensions in Sangam Literature

P.Ragasudha & Dr. Senthil Kumar

Abstract

The Sangam literature is the periodical documentary of the mythical and cultural orthodox knowledge of the Sangam Tamil people in the internal forms of man. Tamil literature registers the inner feelings and heroic feelings of the Tamil people. The unique identity of Tamil people is Sangam Literature. These are the reasons for Tamil being a ‘Semozli’. Psychology is the recent trend in the 20th and 21st centuries of the western world but to the Tamil people; it is not new, lots of evidences on the study of the psychological states of men and women are portrayed in the classical works of Tamil Literature. Hence, the object of this article is to explore the nature and psychological aspects of the leader (Thalaivan) and the psychological aspects of the beloved (Thalaivi).

Keywords:Culture, Sangam Literature, Semozli, Psychology of ancient Tamil people.

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குறுந்தொகையில் அகமரபுவழிச் செய்திகள்

ல.கு.சு.இராஜ்குமார


Agam Tradition Tidings in Kurunthogai

L.G.S.Rajkumar

Abstract

The Sangam Tamil people lived a life of love and valor. The young man and woman are living a life of camaraderie and marrying through it and they live the life of chastity. The leader's faction and isolation made the Thalaivi the saddest. The lover boldly act to reach the head of the beloved’s family. Parents arrange marriage to avoid the bad name from the society. Guardian mother of the lovers worships the deity will find shade, water and protection in the land of the desert. Ancient Tamil people have the custom of arranging marriage with whole heartedness. The tradition of combining duality in marriage and the marriage of two couples in this way ranged from the ancient Tamils to the gentleman's wife, who was devoted to a life of adultery and admiration. The purpose of this research paper is to bring together all the other features of this category to the present generation through the goal of living as the leader's favorite wife.

Keywords:Sangam Tamil People, Love and Valor, Marriage, Chastity, Kurunthogai

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தா.ஏ.ஞா. என்றொரு பேராசான்

முனைவர் வே.விக்னேசு


Dr.T.E.G. – A Great Scholar

Dr.V.Vignesh

Abstract

Dr.T.E.Gnamoorthy studied Tamil himself under the guidance of P.V.Manikanayagar. he received doctorate under the guideship of Gurudevar T.P.M. He was appreciated and praised by his contemporaries. He did his service in Kalaikadir Magazine. He dedicated for the improvement of the art of drama and literary development. He spreaded the fame Civagacintamani. He was the beacon of his students and a scholar of high qualities and discipline. This essay explains his holy life, simplicity and his service for Tamil.

Keywords:T.E.G. , A Great Tamil Scholar

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சமுதாய பார்வையில் பாவேந்தரின் கொள்கைகள்

மா.விஜயலெட்சுமி


Sociological Perspective of Pavendar’s Principles

M.Vijayalakshmi

Abstract

Paventhar Bharathidasan is a Tamil literary luminary who has handled prose, poetry and drama effectively. He developed his works based on ‘Aimperum Iyakkangal’. New Spirit and enthusiasm is seen although in his works with the effect of Periyar’s Self Respect Movement. He emphasized on reforming old society into the world of equal rights. He pointed out world vision and enjoying beauty through his works. This article studies Pavendar’s principles in a sociological perspective.

Keywords:Aimperum Iyakkangal, periyar’s, society.

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இலக்கியத்தில் கலைச்சொற்கள் - நெல் கரும்பு

சி.விஜயன் & ம.செந்தில்குமார்


Glossary in Literature - Paddy, Sugarcane

S.Vijayan & Dr. Senthil Kumar

Abstract

In ancient times, agriculture was the main occupation of the people. Tillage and tillage industries determine the livelihood of the people. In the old age, all industries were concentrated in tillage. The peasants lived in a society of value. There is no food for the people if there are no plowmen. Food is important to all people in the world. The study shows that sugarcane is the primary food in the farmer's diet, and the word sugarcane is used to as a metaphor to describe good news in Tamil culture.

Keywords:Agriculture, Occupation, Food, Metaphor, Paddy, Sugarcane

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பாரதிதாசன் நோக்கில் கற்பனை

இரா. வைதேகி


Imagination in Bharathidasan’s Perspective

R.Vaidheki

Abstract

Bharathidasan was the one who introduced the simple and new forms of poem into the literary world. He wrote his poems about nature’s beauty and platonic love in a breezy way. With almost imagination, he presented a picture of a new world through his imagination. The soul of this article in to view the idea of imagination through his perspective.

Keywords:Agriculture, Occupation, Food, Metaphor, Paddy, Sugarcane

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உயிரினத்தோற்றமும் மானிடவியலும்

ந.வெண்ணிலா


Origin of Species and Anthropology

N.Vennila

Abstract

The paper unfolds the origfn of the species and the human development from the Tamil perspective. It is an intellectual pleasure to know about the origins of the living species. Tamil people are the one who had a long history and has keen understanding in the development of the origin of the species. In the case of anthropology, many of the artefacts prove Tamil people are the oldest people fron very developed civilization. Hence, this article focusses on the chosen theme to unfurl the facts related to it.

Keywords:Origin of Species, Anthropology

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இழப்பும் நாடு அழிதலும் (புறநானூறு)

முனைவர் இரா.ஜீவாராணி


Loss and the Detoriation of Country (Purananooru)

Dr. Jeevarani

Abstract

In Sangam period, it is woman who are mostly affected by war and its consequences. Due to war, women had lost their families, relations and everything. But in Sangam literature, women were highlighted only by means of the sufferings of widowhood, but there are no solutions to the problems. The article explores such evidences from the classic tamil work ‘Purananooru’

Keywords:Loss, Detoriation of Country, Purananooru

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கம்பரின் ஏரெழுபதில் உழவு

முனைவர் இரா.நி.ஸ்ரீகலா


Ploughing in Kambar’s ‘Aereazhubathu’

Dr. R.N.Srikala

Abstract

Besides Ramayan, the great Tamil Epic Poet Kambar wrote in immortal verses like Aereazhubathu, Silaieazhubathu, Thirukaivazhakkam, Saraswathy Anthathy and Sadagopar Anthanthy. The article Ploughing in Kambar’s Aereazhubathu critically analyses the text and graphically pictures the socio-cultural life of the farmers (Velars) who lived in the 12th century Chola land of Tamilnadu. The selfless service of the farmers is recognized by every section of the society. They feed not only the king and his soldiers, but the entire citizens of the society. The kings undertake continuous fight with their enemies. But the farmers aim in life is to make everyone happy. So they are superior to the kings. It was the king who depended on the farmers in the past. Today, the farmers are dependent on the rulers. It also throws light on the process of paddy cultivation of the period and lists the implements used by the farmers and the technical words related to the act of farming.

Keywords:Ploughing, Kambar’s ‘Aereazhubathu’

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அப்துல் ரகுமான் கவிதைகளில் இலக்கிய மரபுகள்

மு.ஸ்ரீதேவி & முனைவர் சி.செல்வகுமார்


Literary Elements in the Poetry of Abdul Rahman

M. Sridevi & Dr. Selva Kumar.

Abstract

The paper evinces on the literary elements employed in the poetic collection of Addul Rahman, one of the great poets of Tamil literature. He has employed perfect leterary devices and approaches in his poetry. His ideas are noted for its radical approach and the use of the norms enunciated by “Tholkappiam” and Sangam Literature. The way he use metaphor is of fine merit to expose a literary image becomes noteworthy of its impact on the reader. Hence, the article decodes such devices in his poetry.

Keywords:Literary Elements, Poetry of Abdul Rahman

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குறுந்தொகையில் கடையெழுவள்ளல்கள்

அ.ஹாஜிரா பேகம்


The Last Seven Patrons in Kuruntogai

A. Hajira Begum

Abstract

The article focuses on the last seven patrons as portrayed in ‘Kuruntogai’. ‘Kuruntogai’ is a classical Tamil poetic work in the second book of the ‘Ettuthogai’(Eight Anthologies). It is content matters were poem contains love and separation. Content matters were written by numerous authors. ‘Kuruntogai’ was complied by Pooriko that praises the Seven least patrons of the Tamil Society. Hence, this paper tries to bring out the last seven patrons’ governance, valiance, donation, bountiness etcetera with ample notes featured in the ‘Kuruntogai’.

Keywords:Last, Seven Patrons, Kuruntogai

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பாலைக்கலியின் பண்பாட்டுக் கூறுகள்

முனைவர் நா.ஹேமமாலதி


Cultural Elements in Palaikali

Dr. N.Hemamalathi

Abstract

This Essay is titled as “Cultural Elements in Palaikali ” It speaks about the tradition, culture, family bond, relationship with the family and others, humans mind set and human day today routine practiced from early centuries till now. The basic ideas are taken from “Kalinthokai”, especially from it ‘Palaikali’ has been taken for analysis. It speaks of the lave and deapair of the partially departed couples for the sake of earning. Moreover, the cultural traits of the people are shown in the paper.

Keywords:Cultural Elements, Palaikali, Kalinthokai

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49. Flora and Fauna in Thiruvalluvar’s Thirukkural

S. Mohan Raj & Dr V. Sunitha


Abstract

Thiruvalluvar’s ‘Thirukkural’ is a universal text for human advancement and moral values. The text vehemently used many references to illustrate the moral values to the human beings. The concern of the poet towards human is profound. It even expands and covers the non-human things. The poet used many floras and faunas to highlight specific qualities for better living. The text insists on the good and positive traits for human beings. The adaptation of floras and faunas in the text is a noteworthy fact about the poet’s keen observation of nature and living things. Thiruvalluvar mentioned the names of floras and faunas in accordance with the nature of living things, qualities and also based on the implied moral from them. It is like comparing or clarifying the things with brevity, as a way of insisting the values. The present study aimed to bring out the floras and faunas in ‘Thirukkural’. Thiruvalluvar strongly talks about biodiversity, ecology and living things. ‘Thirukkural’ is a book of Nature as it marks the natural things and living things.

Keywords:Nature, environment, animals, flowers, living things, moral values

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