தமிழ்மொழி மற்றும் இலக்கியத்திற்காக எமது தமிழ்மொழி மற்றும் இலக்கிய பன்னாட்டு ஆய்விதழ் (IJTLLS); தம் இலக்கிய மற்றும் ஆராய்ச்சி அரும்பணியை செய்து வருகின்றது.
தமிழ் இலக்கியங்கள் காட்டும் வாழ்வியல் நெறிமுறைகள் என்ற பொருண்மையில் கருத்தரங்கம் நடத்தி அதை எமது ஆய்விதழ் வாயிலாக வெளிக்கொணர ஒப்புதல் அளித்த திருவள்ளுவர் கல்லூரி நிர்வாகம் முதல்வர் மற்றும் பிற பல்கலைக்கழக மற்றும் கல்லூரித் தமிழ்த்துறைத்தலைவர் தமிழ்த்துறைப் பேராசிரியர்கள் அனைவருக்கும் நன்றி.
இப்பன்னாட்டு கருத்தரங்கத்தின் ஓர் அங்கமாக தமிழ்மொழி மற்றும் இலக்கிய பன்னாட்டு ஆய்விதழ் (IJLTTS) செம்மையாய் செயல்பட்டு ஆய்வுக் கட்டுரைகளை இணையத்தில் பதிப்பு செய்து உள்ளது. எதிர்காலத்தில் தமிழ் ஆராய்ச்சிகளை உலக அரங்கத்திற்கு எடுத்துச் செல்ல ஓர் ஆய்வுக்களமாக எமது இதழ் செயல்பட்டு வருகிறது. அதற்கு தமது உறுதுணை அளித்த அனைவருக்கும் நன்றி.
பன்னாட்டு கருத்தரங்கில் தமது ஆய்வை செம்மை நிறுத்தி தமிழ்மொழி தமிழர் நாகரிகம் தமிழர் பண்பாடு மற்றும் கலாச்சாரம் போன்ற பொருண்மையில் கிடைத்த தரவுகள் கட்டுரைகளை வழங்கி சிறப்பித்த தமிழ் பேராசிரியர்கள் ஏனைய அனைத்து துறைப் பேராசிரியர்கள் எழுத்தாளர்கள் தமிழ் ஆர்வலர்கள் மற்றும் ஆராய்ச்சி மாணவர்களை மனதார பாராட்டுகிறோம்.
மொழி வளர்த்த பண்பாடு
முனைவர். எஸ். அலமேலுமங்காள்
Culture Developed by Language
The present article is an out come to decipher the role of Tamil Language in developing the Culture of the Tamils. Language is a system to communicate the feelings and emotions of among the people. Tamil Language, a rich Language of antiquity has shaped the culture of the Tamil people. Lots of literary works paved way to the existence of culture in all societies. Tamil society is no exception; it has its deep impact on the cultural development because Tamil Language is basically segregated as IYAL (Linguistics), ISAI (Music), NADAGAM (Drama). Through these trine divisions the culture was and is being spread through the language for the younger generations. Therefore, the article focuses on the related facts.
Keywords: Culture, Developed by Language, Tamil Culture
ஐங்குறுநூற்றின் அன்னாய் வாழிப் பத்து கூறும் வாழ்வியல் சிந்தனைகள்
முனைவர். பெ. அனந்தசயனம்
Thoughts of Life as Told by “Annaai Vaali Pathu” of “Iynkurunooru”
The present article focuses on the rich Tamil tradition lived by aur ancestors. The society’s glory can be estimated by the moral virtues followed by them. Literature is the mirror of the society. In Tamil literature, Sangam Literature is considered as the greatest one showing ethical way of living. The people of those times followed the virtues very stoicly. If the present generation, the ridiculed one tries to follow these benevolent traits, the society will be uplifted with great respect. The purpose of the article solely concentrates to trigger out the life oriented good habits from Iynkurunooru’s “Annaai Vaali Pathu” of Kurunchi Thinai.
Keywords: Thoughts of Life, “Annai Vaali Pattu”, “Iynkurunooru”
வேதாகமம் காட்டும் வாழ்வியல் நெறிமுறைகள்
The Ethics of Life Revealed by the Bible
The purpose of the article is deciphering the noble ideas revealed in the Bible. The Bible is a rich source of spiritual wisdom. It is the voice if the Almighty. In our world, it is one of the biggest religions and has deep impact in all ethnic groups regardless of any prejudices. The base of the Bible is to create a moral society. It also gives much more respect to the other religions and takes the one dear to the Almighty. The main idea propagates to decode the secrets of reading and chanting of Bible, going to church, helping others, humility, leadership, submission perseverance and so many virtues of life. Consequently, this article, gives an open way to understand the ethics recealed through the Bible.
Keywords: The Ethics of Life, Revealed by the Bible
சா. கந்தசாமியின் புதினங்களில் சமுதாயம்
முனைவர் வ. கணபதிராமன்
Society in the Novels of Sa. Kandhasamy
The present article evinces the portrayal of society in the novels of Sa. Kandhasamy. He is an eminent Tamil writer showing the very sensitive issues in a peculiar manner. His depiction of stories tells of the decaying society full of betrayal and immoral life lead by the present society. The worst outcomes of polygamy, vicious friendship, betrayal, prostitution, dowry and its evil consequences are culled out from his select novels. Therefore, the article focuses on the themes in the chosen novels.
Keywords: Society, Novels of Sa. Kandhasamy, Forgotten Life Ethics
கோவிலன் சரித்திரமும் சிலப்பதிகாரமும்
Kovilan Sarithiram and Silappathikaram
The article tries to jot down the story of “Kovilan Sarithiram” with comparison to the epic “Silappathikaram”. There are many versions of the stories of Kannagi and Kovalan. The chief version is the epic “Silappathikaram” but another one is the “Kovilan Sarithiram”. When comparing these two stories are having the same plot but both varies in depiction of thye ccharacters and it is the purpose of the study to bring down the differences. Consequently, this article contemplates on the versions of the stories and the traits of the characters and of the writers of their cultural perspective.
Keywords: Kovilan Sarithiram, Silappathikaram, Tamil Epic, Different Modes
சிற்றிலக்கியங்களில் மன்னர்களின் மாண்புகள்
The Qualities of the Kings in “Sittrilakiyam”
The present article gives details on the benevolence and valour of the kings found in the “Sittrilakkiya” collection. These works were mainly written in the 16th Century. They are totally ninety six books. These books have the concepts based on the internal and external life of the people. The present paper focuses on the works such as “Kalingathuparani”, “Nandhikalambagam” and “Kailayathasar Sathakam” to bring down the qualities of the kings as portrayed in these works. They live a life of valour and virtue and so that their lives are spoken today. Therefore, the article focuses on the facts registered in the select works.
Keywords: Quality of Kings, Sittrilakiyam, Valour
சசுஜாதாவின் “எப்போதும் பெண்” புதினத்தில் மொழிநடை உத்தி
Writing Style in Sujatha’s Novel “Eppothum Pen” (Always Woman)
S. Gracy Rani
The article focuses on the way of writing in the eminent novelist Sujatha’s novel “Eppothum Pen”. There must be backdrop in every writing and that can be easily estimated through the writing style of the writer. The quality of the fine words chosen apt to the situation of the plot is the art of writing in an individual way. This is seen evident Sujatha’s writing. Different types of writing techniques are used by the writer and to find and discuss is the purpose of the study.
Keywords: Writing Style, Sujatha‟s Novel “Eppothum Pen”
தொல்காப்பியத்தில் வாழ்வியல் விழுமியங்கள்
Life Ethics in “Tholkappiam”
The present article examines on the moral codes elicited in the world‟s ancient grammar book “Tholkappiam”. It is not a mere a book of linguistics but a source of moral codes also. In one instance it deals with the segregation of the five types of land where they lived close to. The classification are combined into whole and called as „Mupporul‟. As told earlier, the divisions are „Mutharporul‟ (Time and Land), „Karupporul‟ (matter in Land and Time) and „Uripporul‟ (having the events from the Mutharporul and Karupporul). These are the logical and rational identification of the Tamil people‟s lives seen in the famed work “Tholkappiam”. ‟Therefore, the article focuses on the related facts in the classic work.
Keywords: Tamil Culture, Life Ethics, Tholkappiam
உளவியல் நோக்கில் பெரியபுராண மகளிர்
Women of “Periyapuranam” in Psychological Perspective
The present article tries to show the sort of women’s life as depicted in “Periyapuranam”. It is a book of morals. It deals mostly the divine comedies of the Lord Shiva and his acceptation of his devotees. Women were burdened with untold chaos. It is evident in all places. Even it is seen in the stories of the Nayanmars, they are also glorified women. Women like Isaignaniyar, Mangayarkarasiyar ans Karaikalammaiyar are the glorified women and has been given the title as Nayanmars. Hence, the study decodes the state of these three women in psychological perspective.
Keywords: Women of “Periyapuranam”, Psychological Perspective
மலேசியச் சிறுகதைகள் காட்டும் வாழ்வியல்
முனைவர் ஜெ. சந்திரகலா
Depiction of Life in Malaysian Short Stories
The article tries to show life in the select short stories of Tamil people in Malaysia written by the Malaysian Tamil writers. Tamil people are one of the ethinic groups in Malaysia. They went there as coffee planters and tea estate labourers and rubber tree cutters. Historically many of the Chola kings took refuge there. It shows the long back connection of the Tamil people’s migration over there. After the colonization of the Europeans; especially Britishers, many ethnic group people became paupers or pressured under created poverty. Malaysia is a place of rich culture and Tamil people live there happily and also in unhappiness. The life is both the two we have to accept. Hence, the article traces down the way of life in the select short stories.
Keywords: Life Depicted in Malaysian Short Stories, Way of Life
சிறுபாணாற்றுப்படையின் சாயலில் பாடப்பட்ட கடவுள் வாழ்த்துப்பாடலா? திருமுருகாற்றுப்படை?
முனைவர் ஆ. சந்திரன்
Was that Thirumurugattruppadai an Invocation Song of God alike Sirupanaatruppadai?
The main purpose of the article is to bring down the doubt clear that whether “Thirumurugattruppadai” is an invocation song of God alike “Sirupanaatruppadai”? There are lots of doubts based on its original construction but the idea is to spread spirituality of the Shiva sect and to create the divine consciousness in the individual. To find out the theme the paper extends to find the correlation between “Thirumurugattruppadai” and the grammatical structure of “Aatruppadai” books, then compares it with Sangam songs, genral atructure of “Patthuppattu” and deciphers “Thirumurugattruppadai” seems alike “Sirupanaatruppadai” Hence the article traces the origin and evaluate it.
Keywords: Thirumurugattruppadai, An invocation song of God alike Sirupanaatruppadai?
கணக்கதிகாரம் காட்டும் தொழில்கள்
Occupation Shown by “Kanakkathikaram”
The article finds out the way of occupation shown in the literary work “Kanakkathikaram”. It was written in the 15th Century, it unfolds the social life, people’s life, and occupation and calculating methods prevailed on those times. Basically, it is a mathematical treatise but without life any study proves futile. So, the traces of occupation in the work affirm that arithmetic is used on those days by the people. Hence, the article traces down the related events of occupation in the literary work.
Keywords: Occupation shown in “Kanakkathikaram”, Tamil Literature
இலக்கியம் இயம்பும் நலம் - நன்றி - நட்பு
Wellhood – Gratitude – Friendship Evinced in Literature
The article plans to decode the valuable ethics of life which would keep life happily. Wellhood, Gratitude and Friendship are considered as the prime virtues to be inculcated within and followed to get a life of eternity. Today, people suffer from many unwanted problems; that are because of the lack in keeping the aforesaid traits. Tamil people once lived with such virtues and now living are very sparse. It is a vital need to understand the power of wellhood- gratitude- friendship in one’s lives. Hence, the article finds out through the literary evidences.
Keywords: Wellhood – Gratitude – Friendship, Evinced in Literature
உளவியல் நோக்கில் சிறுவர் நீதி நூல்கள்
Children Moral Books in Psychological Perspectives
India is a country having large number of children and youngsters in the world. This young power is the life of the country. A Tamil saying says that if a child is not mended in a ggood manner; it cannot be mended. So the morals ought to be taught to them in a very yound age becomes vital. Then only, the child could have noble aspirations. To create a very fine order among the society, moral books should be introduced to them in the very early ages. So, that one can frame the psyche of the child in a gradual and fulfledged manner. Therefore, the present article decodes the famous children books in psychological perspective.
Keywords: Children Moral Books, Psychological Perspectives
பத்துப்பாட்டு உணர்த்தும் வாழ்வியல் நெறிமுறைகள்
Life Ethics Instructed by “Pathuppattu”
The purpose of the article is to cater down the instruction of ethical life in “Pathuppattu”. It was written in the Sangam period. The people’s life is all portrayed in the collection of “Pattupattu”. The inner and the outer life of the people are dealt with it. Most of the themes are agriculture, hospitality, relatives, love, charity and valour. These all are the principal traits of the Sangam people. Hence, the people lived a moral life with concern on others. Therefore, this article, paves way to understand the ethics instructed in “Pattuppattu”.
Keywords: Life Ethics, Instructed by “Pathuppattu”
புறநானூற்றில் வாழ்வியல் சிந்தனைகள்
முனைவர் செ. சிவகாமி சுந்தரி
Thoughts of Moral Codes in “Purananooru”
Dr.S. Sivakami Sundari
The notion of the paper is to estimate the life ethics enunciated in the Sangam work “Purananooru”. Tamil Tradition is a lofty one and has numerous ethical treatises and “Purananooru” is basically a book of glorifying feats of the war done by the Sangam kings but in the same manner it also caters awesome diadactic principles to lead life happily. Hence, this article tries to bring forth the norms and life style portrayed in the Sangam treatise.
Keywords: Life Ethics, Purananooru, Tamil People, Tamil culture
சுடுமணல் நாவல் காட்டும் வாழ்க்கை முறை
Life Style as Portrayed in the Novel Sudumanal
The paper tries to estimate the life style portrayed in the novel ‘Sudumanal’ The novel tells of the Tamil family dwells in a place where Tamil is not spoken. The novel centeres around the young chap Mahendra, a man without job who suffers by the water scarcity problem exists in the state. Their parents suffer too much to solve the crisis but immune and sufers for him. Hence, this article tries to elicit the problems endured by the protagonist and the sufferings of his family members.
Keywords: Life Style, Portrayal, Novel Sudumanal, Water crisis, Tamil Literature
திருமந்திரத்தில் வாழ்வியல் சிந்தனைகள்
Thoughts of Life Ethics in “Thirumanthiram”
The article gives details on the ethics enunciated by the holy treatise “Thirumanthiram”. It is full of spiritual ideas and the union of the soul with the Almighty. Very noble and the secrets of leading good life is the notion of Thirumoolar and he noted down as “Thirumanthiram”. Education, IQ, mental equilibrium, evils of jealousy, mentor advice, friendship, desire, truth, non gossip, immorality, family life, blessing, married life, intercourse, benevolent children and destiny are the main focus of “Thirumanthiram” and the present paper scrutinizes the noble ideas related to them.
Keywords: Thoughts of Life Ethics, Thirumanthiram, Thirumoolar
பதினெண்கீழ்க்கணக்கு நூல்களில் பௌத்த அறம்
Buddhist Ethics in Pathinenkeelkanakku Treatises
The research article tries to cull down the principles of life from the “Pathinenkeelkanakku” collections. Buddha is a great luminary of spiritual discipline and had great impact on very great nations of the world. He let his philosophisies to be written in the Pali language for to be his ethics to be with the lay men of his times and was decided by the scholors of those times to translate his „Dhammapatha‟ in Tamil a very classic language of those times. Buddhist ethics are widely seen in the literary works of Tamil Literature. „Pathinenkeelkanakku‟ is a rich literary source of morals from Buddhist philosophies. Hence, this article tries to bring forth the norms and life style portrayed in „Pathinenkeelkanakku‟.
Keywords: Buddhist Ethics, Pathinenkeelkanakku,Tamil Culture, Tamil Life
நற்றிணையின் அகத்துறை காட்டும் வாழ்வியல் சிந்தனைகள்
முனைவர். இரா. சுகந்தி ஞானம்மாள்
Thoughts of Life Shown in Nattrinai’s ‘Akatthurai’
Dr.R. Suganthi Gnanammal
The present paper traces the life values as shown in the literary work “Nattrinai”. In it „Akatthurai‟ shows the eminence of life and the values of the classic Tamil people. In Sangam Literature, nearly 1862 songs were indicating the internal life; that is the benevolent moral life. Tamil people considered love of two types on is Love before marriage “Kalava Kaadal” and the second is love life after the success of marriage “Karpu Kaadal”. The love events happened in their love is called as „Thurai‟; it is bounded to the time, place and action. Hence, the purpose of the article is to decipher the thoughts of life from Nattrinai‟s „Mugampugukilavi‟ and „Manaimarutchi‟.
Keywords: Thoughts of Life, Life shown in Nattrinai’s ‘Akatthurai’
தமிழ் வளர்த்த வீரமாமுனிவர்
முனைவர் இரா. ச. சுகிர்தா பஸ்மத்
Veeramamunivar Raised by Tamil
Dr.R.S. Sukirtha Basmath
The research article tries to elaborate the facts related to the eminent poet Veeramamunivar, a foreigner who got inspired by Tamil and lived like a Tamil and made him a master of Tamil genres and writing. Tamil created him to develop her that must be the truth. His service to Tamil cannot be spoken in words. Understanding his story is a chronicle ever remembering because of his service done to the society and culture through Tamil. Hence, this article draws out the facts regarding his life and literary merit.
Keywords: Veeramamunivar, Tamil
தொல்காப்பியரின் மெய்ப்பாட்டியல் கோட்பாடுகள்
The Norms of Personality by Tholkappiyar
The article tries to bring us the principles of personality as enunciated by Tholkappiyar. “Tholkappiyam” is one of the classic treatise of Tamil literary sources. Very simply to say it is a pinnacle of all literary works because the facts revealed in it are highly authentic, logical and rational. It is a great boon to study such a work deals with all walks of life blended from language to all modern fields existing today. Hence, this article tries to bring forth the norms of personality portrayed by Tholkappiyar.
Keywords: Norms of Personality, Tholkappiyar, Tholkappiyam, Tamil Psychology
ஐவகை நிலமக்களின் வாழ்வியல் நெறிமுறைகள்
Life Principles in the Five Land People
The paper traces the manner of life in the five different lands of the Classic Tamil Nadu. It was categorized as ‘Kurunchi’, ‘Mullai’, ‘Marutham’, ‘Neithal’ and ‘Paalai’. The parts of these lands are segregated according to the natural wealth of the geographical area. Life on these lands also varies. Food cuisine, mode of life, habitual action and in all deeds of life varies to the concern of the land. Hence, the article deciphers the life principles in relation to the land area.
Keywords: Life Principles, Five Land People, Sangam Age
டி. செல்வராஜ் சிறுகதைகளில் தனிமனித வாழ்வியல் நெறிகள்
Individual Life Principles in the Short Stories of D. Selvaraj
C. Selva Sankari
The research article tries to cater the life principles as shown in the short stories of D.Selvaraj. he is a versatile writer and an eminent man of letters. This portrayal also concentrates on the responsibilities of a man in the society. In all of his short stories, he had created a set up of logical outlook that a man’s personal life ethics are also important for the development of the society. Hence, this article tries to bring forth the life norms of an individual keeps forth the construction of a society.
Keywords: Individual Life Principles, Short Stories of D. Selvaraj, Tamil Culture
பத்துப்பாட்டில் பாணர்களின் வாழ்வியல்
The Social Life of the Panars in “Pattuppattu”
The purpose of the article is to cater down the isocial life if the Panar people in “Pathuppattu”. The work was written in the Sangam period. The Panar people’s life is portrayed in “Pattupattu”. The inner and the outer life of the people are the main deal of the collection. They are the people who dealt with music, dance and other related fine arts of the Sangam times. These are the principal traits of the Panar people. Therefore, this article, paves way to understand the life of the Panar people as shown in “Pattuppattu”.
Keywords: Social Life of Panars, Pattuppattu, Sangam Literature, Gipsy Life, Music
நாலடியார் உணர்த்தும் வாழ்வியல் நெறிகள்
Life and Morale as Instructed by Naladiyar
The article caters about the morale of life as shown in literary work “Naladiyar”. It is one of the very classical work in the Tamil literary tradition. “Naladiyar” comes under the “Pathinenkeelkanaku” collection. It is resembling the universal diadactic work “Thirukkural”. It may be written at 250 b.c. it tells of valuable life and quotes fine morals to validate human lives. Hence, this article tries to bring forth the life oriented norms for the betterment of society.
Keywords: Life and Morale, Instructed by Naladiyar
தொல்தமிழரின் அகவாழ்வு நெறிமுறைகள்
முனைவர் ம. தமிழ்வாணன்
Internal Life of the Classical Tamil People
The present article brings forth the internal life of classical Tamil people and the perspectives of their feelings and emotions. Human life is a fascinating one in the environment. It has plenty of developments when compared to other beings. A culture can be estimated by the development of people’s inner psyche and that is the base of a strong society. Tamil people are the ones with rich culture and inner development. They live a code of life. Therefore, this article tries to bring the life of the classical Tamil people
Keywords: Internal Life, Classical Tamil People
இலக்கியங்களில் சரணாகதி தத்துவம்
The Philosophy of Submisssion in Literature
The present article gathers information about the philosophy of submission found in Tamil Literature. Submission to the Almighty god is considered as the morale of a human being in all religions. Hindu religion is an ancient one and mother of all religions of the world. The concept of submission is also in the religion. Many writers of Tamil literature had dealt with the way of submission in their works. As Thiruvalluvar says in the 10th verse of the First chapter of “Thirukkural”, “He whoeth cannot reached the bejeweled feets of God cannot swin across the ocean of life”(Trans, Vinoth-2019). One cannot be peaceful in leading his life without submission of his self to the Almighty; otherwise, he will delude himself in chaos. So, Tamil people have too much wholehearted trust in the way of submission. Therefore, this article tries to bring classic works that portray the art of submission.
Keywords: Philosophy of Submisssion, Tamil Literature, Sense of Tamil people
ஐங்குறுநூற்றில் அறத்தொடு நிற்றல்
முனைவர் ம. தனலெட்சுமி
Living with the Ethics of Ainkurunooru
“Ainkurunooru” is the primary scope of the present article. It gathers information about the life morals followed by the people of those times. The Lover, Beloved, her friend and the morals followed by them at the time of love, and at the time of detatchment, and at crisis areshown in regard to their perseverance with the moral principles and are widely seen in “Ainkurunooru”. So, Tamil people have principled life with morals. Therefore, the article tries to bring down the ideas from “Ainkurunooru”.
Keywords: Living with Ethics, Ainkurunooru, Tamil People, Lover and Beloved
Literature is the mirror of the society. It points out the crisis and the tragic outcomes and suggests with the solutions to them. Tamil writers are excellent in doing so. Female writers are now the scene of Tamil literary tradition. Ambai is one of the women luminary who got succeeded in the Tanil writing and also in English. Her short stories are very notable for her rational outlook. The present study focuses on the story “Surian”(Sun) and takes the theme “Vidial” (Dawn) as liberation to decipher the war crisis throughout the story. Therefore, the article unfolds the goriness of war and the consequences of it.
Keywords: Surian (Sun), Vidial (Dawn), Ambai, War Crisis
புதுக்கவிதையில் - வறுமை
Poverty in Modern Poetry
The research article gives details on poverty as seen in the modern verses of Tamil Literature. Poverty is the prime evil that curbs the development of the society. In reality, poverty exists really because of the men who swindle other men. This is an inhuman act. When the basic amenities of a society are deprived of it, it is poverty. These glimpses are seen in the writings of Tamil modern poetry. The poetries of Mu.Mehta, Pa.Iraiarasan, Vi. Unnamalai and Sirpi portray the gory faces of poverty. Select poems are taken from these poets and are studied to bring down the ideas and thoughts of them in it.
Keywords: Poverty in Modern Tamil Poetry, Mu.Mehta, Pa.Iraiarasan, Vi. Unnamalai, Sirpi
சங்க இலக்கியங்கள் காட்டும் ஐவகை நில மக்களின் வாழ்வியல் முறைகள்
The Way of Life in the Five Types of Land as Elicited in the Sangam Literature
The research article tries to get the minute details of the status of the five sorts of lands where Tamil people lived. They are separated according to the natural set up. They are Kurinji, Mullai, Marutham, Neithal and Palai. The flora and fauna, the occupation, spiritual belief and other related habitual actions are dealt with the paper in a detail manner. Life according to them varies and seems surprisingly different. Hence, this paper bring forth the Way of Life in the Five Types of Land as Elicited in the Sangam Literature
Keywords: Way of Life, Five Types of Land, Sangam Literature, Tamil People
கவிக்கோ அப்துல் ரகுமானின் புதுக்கவிதைகளில் குறியீடு – ஒரு பார்வை
Symbolism in the Modern Verses of Kaviko Abdul Rahman
Mr.M. Bala Gurusamy
The research paper fosters the use of symbolism in the verses of the famed poet Abdul Rahman. Symbolism is a famous movement that existed authentically in the west; especially in French Literature. French symbolism is noted for its elegance and indepth meaning. Tamil literature is also rich in its lofty use of symbolism. The poet has used wide range of themes such as moon, closed eye, democracy and etc to extend his views on society and individual feelings and senses. Therefore, the paper bring the use of symbolism in the verses of the world famed poet Abdul Rahman.
Keywords: Symbolism, Modern Verses, Kaviko Abdul Rahman, Tamil Literature
சங்க இலக்கியத்தில் வாழ்வியல்
Way of Life in Sangam Literature
The research article focuses on the style of life lived by the people of the Sangam Age. Sangam Age is noted for its virtues of life. They lived a life full of value and code. It is a pleasant feel to study on the life ethics of the people. The present study fills the gap between the modern society by eliciting them the rich life lived by the Sangam people. It deals with the social concerns like art, early wake up, bathing, cuisine and dressing of the people. Therefore, the paper bring the use of symbolism in the verses of the world famed poet Abdul Rahman.
Keywords: Way of Life, Sangam Literature, Tamil Life
அற இலக்கியங்களில் பெண்மைக் குறித்தப்பதிவுகளும் மதிப்பீடுகளும்
முனைவர் ச. பிரியா
Registration and Estimation of Women in Didactic Literatures
The research paper examines on the registration and estimation of women in Diadactic works from Tamil Literature. Tamil people came across many religions and in most of them had instructed women are weak, fragile, immune and worthless; they insisted only they can be used for sexual gratification and progeny. Some of the pure Tamil works had estimated very low on the quality of women. The focus of the article chooses the theme of patriarchal subjugation and oppressive nature on women and therefore, the related facts are analysed from the chosen works.
Keywords: Registration and Estimation of Women, Didactic Literatures, Tamil Culture
ரமணிசந்திரன் நாவல்களில் மனிதநேயம்
Humanity in Ramanichandran’s Novels
The article focuses on humanity as shown in the novels of Ramanichandran. Ramanichandran is a voive of the Tamil women who shares her intellect by portraying the life of the Tamil people and others in her novels. Her novels can be attested as domestic novels. The stories are often intertwined with the crisis of women in the Indian setup. Moreover, humanity is the main concern of her novels. Therefore, the paper bring down the evidences of humanity in her novels.
Keywords: Humanity, Ramanichandran’s Novels, Tamil Literature
நெடுநல்வாடை: பெண்களின் அணிகலன்களும் சமூக குறியீடுகளும்
முனைவர் ஆ.புஷ்பா சாந்தி
Nedunalvaadai: Ornaments of Women and Social Symbolism
Dr.A. Pushba shanthi
The research paper focuses on the ornaments and their social identity as registered in the Tamil literary work “Nedunalvaadai”. The use of ornaments among women is of the rich state of the society and has the influence of aesthetic taste among them. Normally, women ale easily drawn to the use of jewells. These they think of to beautify them and to have a royal look in the society. In Sangam times women are very elegant and used various types of ornaments to be used in the limbs. It shows the luxuric trait existed among them. Therefore, the paper culls out the facts of Ornaments of Women and Social Symbolism in “Nedunalvaadai”.
Keywords: Ornaments of Women, Social Symbolism in Nedunalvaadai, Tamil Literature
பிரபஞ்சன் நாவல்களில் நாட்டார் இலக்கியக் கூறுகள்
Nattar (Folk) Literary Types in the Novels of Prapanchan
The paper traces the way of story telling in the novels of Prapanchan. Mostly the Tamil tradition had passed its literature through oral tradition. They are called as Oral Literature. It is based on the folk tradition of telling the tales; pointing mainly the culture and the setup of the people. There are some forms too to identify them. They may be of revealing ugliness, cruelty, vulgarity, beautifulness and virtuousness through the oral songs. Hence, this article focuses the use of Nattar (Folk) literary types in the novels of Prapanchan.
Keywords: Nattar (Folk) Literary Types, Novels of Prapanchan
ஆற்றுப்படை நூல்களில் இறைவழிபாடு
Divine Worship in the Aatruppadai Collection
The paper finds the traces of Divine worship in the collection of “Aatruppadai”. Divinity is the main concern for an individual and it is really a great one to achieve. The divine soul will be ever free and is a source of salvation to others. So people belong to all cultures created the tendency of divine worship. Tamil people is of no exception, they are so divine in all pursuits. Their whole life is to attain divinity, “Aatruppadai” collection is a fountain of divine source. The ideas in it enthrall the soul of all and cover them into the divine universe. Hence, this article tries to elicit the problems endured by the protagonist and the sufferings of his family members.
Keyword> Divine Worship, Aatruppadai Collection, Divinity of Tamils
ஈழத்தமிழ்ச் சிறுகதைகளில் தலித்தியப் பார்வை
முனைவர் சு. பேச்சியம்மாள்
Dalit Approach in the Short Stories of Tamil Eelam
The paper plans to find out the traces of Dalit suppression and oppression in the short stories of Tamil Eelam. Tamil people are the original inhabitants of the present Sri Lanka, known formerly as Ilankai. There are many evidences that prove Tamils had a rich culture at Lanka. After the Aryan influence over the Buddhist, adopted by the Sinhala People; the Tamil people were preyed under the influence of Aryan segregation of castes. Due to that and the bogus Buddhists of the island Tamils were betrayed and corrupted by themselves of believing the caste order, they did many sorts of oppression to their kins men. These are reflected in the stories of the Eelam. Many writers wrote about the caste oppression in their stories. The paper focuses on the compiled short stories by Sugan and decipers the influence of caste in the society which made Dalit a separate caste order in Eelam. Hence, this article focuses the related theme.
Keywords Dalit Approach, Short Stories of Tamil Eelam
திருவாசகத்தில் மாணிக்கவாசகரின் பக்திநெறி
Norms of Bhakthi in Manickavasakar’s Thiruvasakam
The paper finds out the norm of Bhakthi (Devotion) in the great Saivam Poet Manikavasakar‟s “Thiruvasakam”. There is a saying by G.U. Pope as “If no one melts on the verses of “Thiruvasakam”, the one won‟t be melted for any sort of emotion”( Trans- Prof. Vinoth). Bhakthi is a moral virtue in a Hindu‟s life. He should be of pure in his dedication. Saiva sect is an age old one and the mother of Hinduism and for many religions of the world. Lord shiva is the primodal God of the sect. He is called as „Eesan‟ in Tamil and the name resonates in many major religions. Manickavasakar is a spiritual luminary who redeemed the salivate religion in the Buddhist and Jain influenced Tamil Nadu. The verses of “Thiruvasagam” is an epitome of ultimate surrender to the almighty Shiva. Manickavasakar surrendered his soul completely to lord Shiva and is the out come of Bhakthi tradition in spiritual elevation in Tamil Nadu. Hence, this article focuses the norms of bhakthi related to the concept.
KeywordsNorms of Bhakthi, Manickavasakar’s Thiruvasakam, Saivam Sect, Hinduism
நாட்டுப்புறவியல் தோற்றமும் வளர்ச்சியும்
The Origin and the Development of Folk Literature
The paper traces the origin and development of Folk Literature in Tamil Nadu. Basically, Tamil Folk culture is categorized into four types. They are Folk Literature, Folk Art, Folk Beliefs, Customs, Ceremonies and Folk Dialogues. In them, there are many types of songs. They are Thalattu (Lullaby), Oppari (Lamentation or Elegy), Children Songs, Dances, Occupational Songs, Marriage Songs and the song of the Gipsies. Hence, this article focuses origin and development of Folk Literature.
KeywordsOrigin and Development, Folk Literature, Tamil Nadu
உவரி வாழ் பரதவர்களின் பண்பாட்டுக் கூறுகள்
Cultural Traits of the Parathavars of the Uvari Region
The research paper traces the cultural traits of the fishing people (Parathavars). The people belongs to the Neithal (Costal Region) of the Southern Tamil Nadu. Their customs and their way of life seems to be a significant one in knowing about the life of the fishing community. The paper focuses on the customs like marriage, hospitality, friendship, education and harmony among the religions and so on followed by the Parathavar People. Hence, this article mines out the traits of the sea-faring people.
KeywordsCultural Traits of the Parathavars, Uvari Region, Tamil Nadu
பழந்தமிழர் வாழ்வியலும் தொழில் முறையும்
ஸ். மார்த்தாள் ஜான்சி
Life Manner and Occupation of the Classical Tamil People
S. Marthal janci
The research article plans to bring forth the life style, occupation of the Classical Tamil people of the Sangam times. It unfolds the intelligence of the classic Tamil people and list outs the occupation existed at the times. Agriculture, Carpenting, Weaving, and other chores of life. It is a life of all sophistication and decorum in those people’s lives. Hence, this article draws out the life mannerisms of the classical Tamil people.
KeywordsLife Manner, Occupation, Classical Tamil People
சிலம்பில் வரிகளும் நளன் கதையும்
The Story of Nala in Silappathikaram
The article caters the folk story of Nala as enunciated in the epic “Silappathikaram”. Tamil literary tradition has a distinction in its elegance. The paper focuses on the dramatic quality and music of “Silapathikaram” and the depiction of the king Nala in the perspective of Thamilur. SA.VE.Subramaniam, Former Prof. International Institute of Tamil Studies. Hence, the research article culls out the life of Nala within the norms of the chosen hyothesis.
KeywordsThe Story of Nala, Silappathikaram
திருக்குறளில் மனித நேயம்
முனைவர். மா. முத்துவிஜயலட்சுமி
Humanity in Thirukkural
M. Muthu vijayalakshmi
The article fosters to note down the humane quality found in the universal ethical work “Thirukkural“. It is a source of virtues. One who follows the sayings of the “Thirukkural” will be redeemed from all sorts of crisis in his life. It is a sorce of confidence and hope in brevity. Humanity can be deciphered through the virtues followed in life. Love, Charity, Hospitality, Discipline are considered as the primary virtues of an individual. One who cultivates these traits will be a man of honour. “Thirukkural” has such virtual power to empower a man with such attitudes. So, the paper unleashes the messages regarding humanity from the chosen diadactic work.
KeywordsHumanity in Thirukkural
நாலடியார் காட்டும் வாழ்வில் சிந்தனைகள்
Thoughts of Life in Naladiyar
The present research article taps the ethics of life and thoughts as evinced in one of the the “Pathinenkeelkanakku” book “Naladiyar”. These books were written after the Sangam Era. They are attested as diadactic works in Tamil Literature. “Naladiyar” is one of the “KeelKanakku” books. It is full of moral axioms that lead our lives in a very bright and ful-fledged manner. Therefore, the paper give a free rein to the messages regarding life from the chosen diadactic work.
KeywordsThoughts of Life, Life in Naladiyar, Tamil Literature
தமிழ் இலக்கியங்கள் காட்டும் வாழ்வியல் நெறிமுறைகள்
Life Morals Instructed in Tamil Literary Works
The present article encompasses the morals of life instructed in the select Tamil literary works. It is a fact that life is a one to be lived with cartain virtues; without them the life of an individual seems futile. Tamil people are the ethinic group who trust virtues are the sources of attainment of holy nature. Many Tamil scholars gave much significance to moral ethics and that are widely seen in Tamil Literary works. Most of the themes centeres around the life of the poets, kings, devotees, education, wealth, love, valour and etc. Therefore, the paper give a narrow study on the literary works that give glimpses of moral ethics to be followed in life.
KeywordsLife Morals, Instructed in Tamil Literary Works
பழந்தமிழரின் புழங்குப்பொருளில் மட்கலம்
முனைவர் சி.ராம லெட்சுமி
Mud Wares in the Utensils of the Classical Tamil People
The present article conducts a study on the mud utensils used by the Tamil people of the Sangam times. Even though, they used Gold, silver and Iron utensils the use of mud are spoken vastly of its antiqueness; because it reveals the culture of the Tamils from the different parts of the world. Pottery and Mud wares are the occupation and used utensils of the classic Tamil people. They are of many types. They are named as Thali, Kulisi, Sadi, Thasumbu, Kuppi, Kadi, Thadavu, Thalam, Mandai and Panaiodu. Therefore, the study focuses on the different types of mud wares used by the Tamil people.
KeywordsMud Ware Utensils, Classical Tamil People
நாட்டார் தெய்வங்களும் வழிபடும் முறைகளும்
Nattar Deities and the Method of Worship
The present article unfurls the mode of worship and the Nattar Deities in Tamil regions of Tamil Nadu.Tamil culture has a pantheon of Gods and Deities. They are categorized as Major and minor deities. There are no any village without the temples of the rural deities and the chief Gods. The deities titled as Ayya, Ayyan, Adiyan, Sami and Amman and having names as Veliappansami, Karuppasami, Urangapulimadan, Panduvansami, Vadivuamman and Eswariamman etc. Therefore, the study focuses on the deities of the folks and the mode of worship by the Tamil people.
KeywordsNattar Deities, Method of Worship, Tamil Life and Culture
“கற்றாழை” புதினத்தில் காணப்படும் வாழ்வியல் கூறுகள்
இ. ரெஜிலா மேரி
Life in the Novel “Katralai” (Cactus)
I. Rejila mery
The article deciphers the morals of life in the novel “Katralai” (Cactus). The main idea of the study is to decode the way of life from the novel written by Su. Tamil Selvi, a renowned Teacher. The protoganist of the novel is Manimegalai and she is compared to the cactus because as the cactus survives of the fittest, the lady Manimegalai also lives like that in the novel. Thus, the writer wants to show that women are living in very worst circumstances. Therefore, the study focuses on the way of life in the novel.
KeywordsLife in the Novel “Katralai” (Cactus), Su. Tamil Selvi, Tamil Literature
நான்மணிக்கடிகை உணர்த்தும் அறம்
Ethics Instructed by “Nanmanikkadikai”
The present article focuses on the ethics instructed by “Nanmanikkadikai”. The meaning of the title reveals it as four pieces of precious stones because as precious like them the verses tells of four valuable quotes. This book contains of 106 verses. The values and the need of it in the elevation of moral human life are instructed in the work. Hence, the study decodes the ethics as told in the work “Nanmanikkadikai”.
KeywordsEthics, Instruction, “Nanmanikkadikai”
பொன். முருகேசன் நாவல்களில் கலாச்சாரமும் புதுமையும்
முனைவர் கோ. ராஜேஸ்வரி
Culture and Modernism in the Novels of Pon. Murugesan
The article focuses on the showing of culture and modernism in the novels of Pon. Murugesan. Life is mixed of the culture without that everything becomes nothing. A society can come to a top level if it has a rich culture and heritage. Today’s world is devoid of culture and is shattering into pieces. It becomes the hurdle for the lingering modernism to attain its fulfilled state. Hence, the study decodes the worst states of ruining culture and the need of modernism.
KeywordsCulture and Modernism, Novels of Pon. Murugesan
பூமணியின் ‘அஞ்ஞாடி’ நாவலில் ‘வண்ணார்’ தொழில் பாடல்கள்
The Occupational Songs of the Vannar (Washermen) Community in the Novel Agnaadi by Poomani
The article provides the matters related to the songs sung by the washermen people in the novel “Agnaadi”. Society is a setup of all sorts of people doing their jobs; even by clanship. The labour of all people pressures them and to come out of the crisis they refreshed them with singing songs to rejenuate them with fine songs. The principal character Mari in the novel sings song to relieve the hardships of labour in the novel. It is full of logic and humour. Therefore, the study revolves on the facts regarding songs related to the work and refreshment of the people of washerman community.
KeywordsOccupational Songs of the Vannar Community, Novel Agnaadi by Poomani
கொங்கணரின் வாலைக்கும்மி காட்டும் வாழ்வியல் நெறிமுறைகள்
Life Principles in Konkanar’s Valaikummi
The article propagates to decipher Konkanar’s “Valaikummi”. Konkanar is one of the eighteen Siddhars. They are considered and revered for their spiritual attainment. Their verses are totally collected and commonly called as “Sidhar Padalkai”. Konkanar’s verses are called titled as “Valaikummi”. Valai is the deity of the spiritual power; without her permission one cannot attain the raja yoga or the spiritual fulfillment. Konkanar sang many songs and it were recorded as these songs have fine virtues in it. Therefore, the study focuses on the ethics of life enunciated in the Siddar songs.
KeywordsLife Principles, Konkanar’s Valaikummi
சங்க இலக்கியத்தில் அரசனின் பண்பு
The Quality of the King in Sangam Literature
The research article tries to cater down the virtues of the kings of the Ancient Tamil Kingdom. The Chera, Chola and the Pandia triumvirate is the glory of the Tamil Nadu. Among them some are very notable for their quality and are recorded in the ancient Tamil Literary works. Some of the kings like Imayavaramban, Cheran Chenguttuvan, Pandian Nedunchelian and Karikala Cholan are very notable for their virtues. Minor chieftains and dukes such as Began, Pari, Adiyaman, Oori, Nalli and Kadiyaneduvetuvan are also famous for their good qualities. Their valour and good qualities are glorified in some literary works of the Sangam Period. Therefore, the study focuses on the qualities of the kings enunciated in the Sangam Literature.
KeywordsQuality of the King, Sangam Literature
திருக்குறள் கூறும் குடிசெயல் வகை
முனைவர் ஜ. வள்ளி
Nobility as Told in Thirukkural
The article traces down the glory of nobility of families. Keeping a good name to the family is the key to attain social repute. Without gaining genuineness among the people of the society, one cannot live with fame and glory. Thiruvalluvar gave very good suggestions in his couplets to make a man of God by keeping virtues in the family and to retain the virtues through his successors. His path of nobility is the present need of the modern people; especially Tamil people because they amply get devoid of such valuable virtues that their ancestors once hsd. Hence, the article finds out codes of nobility through the couplets from “Thirukkural”.
KeywordsNobility, Thirukkural, Ethical Life
தமிழ் இலக்கியங்களில் வாழ்வியல் நெறிமுறைகள்
Principles of Life in the Literature of Tamil
The research article is to provide the details of the principles of life in the literary works of Tamil. Life full of principles and the way is a difficult one to achieve. To follow principles in every aspect of life is a needed one for an individual to redeem his life from all clutches. Literature helps us in curbing such pressures. Tamil Literature is a source of diadactic wisdom. Sangam literature is a first on the list to quote and teach virtues of life. Therefore, the study concentrates on the facts regarding the principles of life in Tamil Literature.
KeywordsPrinciples of Life, Literature of Tamil, Sangam Literature
வளையாபதி உணர்த்தும் வாழ்வியல் நெறிமுறைகள்
Principles of Life Instructed in Valayapathi
The research article provides the details of the principles of life in the literary work “Valayapathi” one of the Five Epics of Tamil Nadu. Life is one that has deep impact on the human society that is reflected through literatures. Epics are the ones that reveal the national character of the people. “Valayapathi” is an epic full of moral virtues based on the Samana sect, lots of the fragments are demolished and through the remaining sources we find life principles are widely seen in it. Therefore, the study concentrates on the facts regarding the principles of life.
KeywordsPrinciples of Life, Five Epics of Tamil Nadu
வில்லவன் கவிதைகளில் ஒடுக்கப்பட்டோர்
The Oppressed in the Poetry of Villavan
The purpose of the article is to show the state of the oppressed people in the poetry of the poet Villavan. Poetry is a powerful medium that envisages many rational views and finds solutions and suggests boldly overcoming them. These qualities are the vital need of poems to be written in every society. Villavan is a rational humanist. All of his poems and works are based on the human inequalities prevailing in the society. He concentrated his views on the oppressed, unemployees, women, poor and the socially deprived ones. Therefore, this article, gives way to understand the life of the oppressed people as shown in the works of Villavan.
KeywordsOppressed in the Poetry of Villavan, Tamil Poetry
இலக்கியம் இயம்பும் இல்லறம்
Family Life as Evinced by Literature
The article is to clear down the ethics of family life as seen in the vast ocean of Tamil Literature. Tamil Literature is a ‘well defiled’ and it will be an ever flourishing fountain of the portrayal of culture and moral principles. The focus of the paper decodes the virtues and values found in the Sangam and modern didactic treatises. The role and individuality of woman as the home maker of family, man and his quality, hospitality, caring parents and treating relatives is the subject of the study. Therefore, the article focuses on the related facts from the literary sources.
KeywordsFamily Life, Evinced by Tamil Literature
வள்ளுவம் வகுத்த வாழ்வியல் நெறிமுறைகள்
Principles of Life Created by Valluvam
The paper provides a brief scrutiny of life oriented principles created by Valluvar’s “Thirukkural”. “Thirukkural” is a cascade of moral source. The importance of writing seems that it wants to create the moral virtue in the individual and shows the quality had existed from the past ages. It has been instructed and been instructing to the successors of Tamil origin and the learned men to inculcate the knowledge of “Thirukkural”. Therefore, the study focuses on the facts related to the virtual ideas as evinced by the universal didactic treatise “Thirukkural”.
KeywordsPrinciples of Life, Created by Valluvam, Thiruvalluvar
ஆசாரக்கோவையில் உடல்நலம் காக்கும் நெறிமுறைகள்
முனைவர் ஜெ. ஜெயசாந்தி
Norms on Keeping Physical Hygiene in “Aasarakkovai”
The article provides brief ideas on the norms of keeping physical hygiene in “Aasarakkovai”. “Sound body has a sound mind”, it is an English proverb. Thirumoolar, one of the eighteen Siddhas says “Maintained the Body; Maintained the life” in his “Thirumanthiram”. So it seems that keeping the physical health is a vital one for an individual. It can aid him with everfressness and confidence in all of his pursuits. Tamil Literature has lots of works which deals with the physical hygiene of an individual. In the work “Aasarakkovai”, it is widely seen and therefore the study focuses on the facts related to the norms of keeping physical hygiene in “Aasarakkovai”
KeywordsNorms on Keeping Physical Hygiene, Aasarakkovai
இலக்கியங்களில் - வாழ்வியல் அறம்
Moral Codes of Life in Literature
The article decodes the moral codes of life seen in Tamil Literature. The value of codes in life is very vital to one and all to cope up with the people of the society. Without morals, no one can be the attainer of perfection. Civil Life, love, hospitality, friendship, self-esteem, occupation and war ethics are seen widely in the classic literary works of Tamil Literature. These traits are those make people capable of becoming an individual. “Kurunthokai”, “Thirukkural”, “Nattrinai”, “Purananooru” are famous the works that speak of such morals. Hence, the article finds out codes of life through the literary facts.
KeywordsMoral Codes of Life, Tamil Literature
மணிமேகலை சுட்டும் வாழ்வியல்
Life Ethics Indicated by “Manimekalai”
The article gives details on the life ethics as depicted in “Manimakalai”, one of the five great epics of Tamil Nadu. It is also a national identity of the Tamil people whom of them mostly accepted the ways of Buddhism. Even it is now alien to the people, the good ideas in it are very useful for the development of the society in ethical means. The birth of Manimekalai, her psyche, her friend, belief, religious trust, and her arguments with other sects, nature and natural exploitation are widely spoken through this paper to understand the way of life in the epic. Therefore, the article concentrates on the facts registered in it.
KeywordsLife Ethics, Indicated in Manimekalai
வள்ளுவமும் வாழ்வியல் நெறிகளும்
Principles of Moral Life and Valluvam
The article provides details of good and moral life presented in Valluvam. „Valluvam‟ is the title word for the diadactics evinced by Thiruvalluvar in “Thirukkural”. It is a fine treasure to all individuals of the world. It must be a pleasure in grasping the ideas of Valluvam which can elevate our soul to greater heights. The moral treatise deals with nearly 133 themes related to humanity and serene and rational ideas are inculcated there for the one who aspires in becoming an individual. Therefore, the study focuses on the facts related to the Principles of Moral Life and Valluvam.
KeywordsPrinciples of Moral Life, Valluvam, “Thirukkural”, Thiruvalluvar
நெய்தல் நில மக்களின் தொழில்கள்
The Occupation of the Neithal (Sea-Faring) People
The paper provides valuable messages regarding the occupation of the Neithal (Sea-faring) people in the Tamil Society. The Fishing men are the people, lives on the costal areas of Tamil Nadu. The former capital Korkai of the Pandian Kingdom is known for sea faring men for their livelihood. Cutting Pearls, catching fishes and other sea oriented jobs are the main occupation of the Neithal people. Therefore, the study focuses on the mode of life and occupation of the coastal area people of the Sangam times.
KeywordsOccupation, Neithal (Sea-Faring) People
Teachers Instructional Role Perception Scale(Standardization of the Research Tool)
Dr. K. Ratheeswari
The Present investigation has been under taken in order to study the teacher’s instructional role perception in Tamil Nadu. Teachers Instructional Role Perception scale was constructed and validated by the investigator (2010) with help of the guide Dr.G.Visvanathan has been administrated to a stratified random sample of 120 school teachers. The tool consists of 52 items with five point scale. The scoring in the scale ranges from 1 to 260 in the direction of the low level perception to high level perception. The reliability of the tool is found to be 0.86 which is highly reliable. The tools also have content validity and face validity. So the tool can be used in Educational Research.
KeywordsOccupation, Neithal (Sea-Faring) People
Position of Women in Sangam Age
Dr. J.V. Santha Jayakumari
This article depicts the position of Women in Sangam age. The Period from B.C.3 to A.D.3, 600 years, is called as Sangam age in Tamil History. Tholkappiam, Aganaanuru, Kurunthogai, Pura-Nanuru, Madurai Kanji, Nartrinai, Nedunelvadai, Tirukural, Naladiyar and Silapathikaram are some of the pieces of Sangam literature. These works have shown a clear picture about Sangam women and their status. There was no equality between men and women legally as well as socially. It chiefly focuses upon their lifestyle, position, role they played in family and Society. It also speaks about their marriage, education, faith and love for a husband, and widowhood. Thus, this article gives a clear portrayal of Women in Sangam Age.
KeywordsPosition of Women, Sangam Age, Tamil Women