Ijtlls எனும் பன்னாட்டு தமிழ் இதழை இனிதே தொடங்கி நடத்துவதில் மிகவும் பெருமையடைகிறோம். தமிழ் மொழி மற்றும் இலக்கியத்தின் தொன்மையினை வெளிக்கொணரும் வகையில் இவ்ஆய்விதழ் அமைந்துள்ளது. தமிழ் ஆய்வாளர்கள், பேராளர்கள் மற்றும் ஆர்வலர்கள் தங்கள் ஆய்வை இயற்றி ஒப்புமை மற்றும் உயர்வு பெற இது ஓர் அரிய களமாகும். இது இப்பன்னாட்டு இதழின் இரண்டாம் தொகுதியின் இரண்டாம் வெளியீடாகும். என் பணி தமிழ் பணி செய்து கிடப்பதுவே என்பதற்கிணங்க ஆராய்ச்சி மாணவர்கள் மற்றும் பேராளர்களால் சிறந்த ஆய்வு இருமொழிகளில் (தமிழ் மற்றும் ஆங்கிலம்) ஆய்வு கட்டுரைகளைக் கொண்டிருப்பதாகும். ஆய்வாளர்களின் அனைத்து கட்டுரைகளும் ஆய்வு நெறிமுறைகளின்படி தணிக்கைச் செய்யப்பட்டு மதிப்புரை வழங்கி செம்மைப்படுத்திப் பிரசுரம் செய்யப்பட்டுள்ளது. தமிழ் வளர்ச்சிக்காக அதன் தொன்மையை உலக அரங்கிற்கு எடுத்துச் செல்வதே இவ்ஆய்விதழின் நோக்கமாகக் கொண்டாளப்பட்டுள்ளது. மேன்மேலும் இப்பன்னாட்டு இதழ்வளர்ச்சியடைய அனைவரின் சிறந்த ஆய்வு கட்டுரைகள் வரவேற்கப்படுகின்றன.
கொண்டி மகளிர்/உரிமை மகளிர்/வேளங்கள்
Gondi Women/Urimai Women/Velems
In reality, Women are the back bone of our society. They were given superior status and deep respect in our Tamil culture but due to Arayanization our ancestors treated them as slaves and servants. They defeated foreign countries and captured number of young women and keep them as their concubines in the Seraglio.The Chola and the Pandiya kings established various living quarters for this like women. The women were treated illegitimately always and no civil liberties were provided for them. From the Sangam age itself, this like bad treatment was enacted against them. On the ther words, Tamil kings, in one way honoured women and in other way misused them. They are called as Gondi Women or Urimai Women and the places they are kept are called as Velems. The paper investigates the related evidences in regard to Gondi Women and Velams.
Keywords: Gondi Women, Urimai Women, Velems, Tamil Culture, The Triumvirs
சமூகப் பிரச்சனைகளில் இலக்கியங்களைச் சாடிய பாவேந்தர்
முனைவர் அ. கோவிந்தராஜன்
Pavendhar’s Satire on Literature over Social Issues
Dr. A. Govindarajan
Pavendhar Bharathidasan is a known Tamil Patriot in the Tamil Era of Dravidian Politics. He is one of the firebrand of the Dravidian idea who had shown strong opposition on the theistic views that hinder the uniqueness of the Tamil society. He is one of the stalwarts of Tamil Literature and have shown his strong command on Tamil Literature by evincing the Tamil culture and tradition through his works. He got admired by many tamil poets and rever them for their aesthetic sense. In the same manner, when he finds the same writer has evinced something weakening the spirit of the society; he had condemned them with his same fire brand poetry, prose and speech. He was objective and unbiased in all of his literary pursuits. All of that he did only for the emanicipation and rationale of the Tamil society. Hence, this paper scrolls down the satire shot against the human chauvinism done in the name of Aryanization.
Keywords: Pavendhar, Satire, Tamil Literature, Social Issues
கட்டிடக்கலை நுட்பங்களில் ஆவுடையார்கோயில்
முனைவர் செ. சாந்தி
Avudayarkovil and its Architecture
This study focuses on Temple art and Architecture of Avudayarkovil. The temple of Tamil Nadu has a long history and Archaeology among the temples in South India. The temple in South India context has always drawn the attention of students, when we trace the origin of the temple; there is clear mention of the Kottam and Kovil that mentioned in the Sangam literature. There is an appealing theory about the history of the temple in Tamil Nadu. The study has taken a challenge to understand the art and Architecture of Avudayar Kovil temple. It also attempts to collate all the existing research that has been under taken in the field of architecture, and potential contribution to the existing body of knowledge through a structural and sculpture analysis of Avudayar Kovil temple Architecture. The study comprises the details of Architecture plans of the temple, Iconography, and Iconometry of sculpture in the Avudayar Kovil temple. It includes the structure of pillars, ceiling, and painting of the Avudayar Kovil temple. Hence, the paper focuses on the art and architectural evidences in the Avudayarkovil Temple.
Keywords:Temple Art, Architecture, Avudayarkovil, Tamil Culture.
இலங்கை வவுனியா மாவட்டத்திலுள்ள தாவர மூலிகை இடப்பெயர்கள்
Names of Places with the Names of Herbs in Vaviniya District of Ilangai
Due to the speciality or diversity of the herbs and plants majority of the villages are named relevant to medicinal plants in the Northern Province of Sri Lanka. Even such plants were destroyed, they are still called in the names of particular plants.The objective of this study was to identify and documentation of plant based place names of Vavuniya District in the Northern Province of Sri Lanka. The information were collected from field study, authentic journals, books and other research publications. Among the 512 villages, 315 were identified relevant to herbs and plants names. The paper details the sources with ample proof to know about the names of the places on the names of the herbs or plants which are still in use.
Keywords: Diversity, Villages, Names, Places Names, Herbs, Vavuniya District, Ilangai
தொல்காப்பியத்தில் பயணங்களும் பதிவுகளும்
Travels and Records in Tholkappiyam
Tholkappiyam, the first written document for the grammar has becomes a primal source of all the write-ups in Tamil as well as the concrete evidence to explicit the life style of our ancient people.This paper aims at tracing the epistemological element of ‘Travel and its record’ in Tholkappiyam.Though, it has no direct connection with the travel, it has an indirect allusion in the expenditure part. Porulathikaram,one of the major proportions of Tholkappiyam,excels on the various facets of travel and how it has the influence upon the ancient Tamil people. Ultimately, this paper tries to prove that literary outputs are not only a source for depicting the society but also to bring out the patterns of grammar.
Keywords: Travels, Record, Tholkappiyam
சிறைக்குடி ஆந்தையார் பாடல்கள் வெளிப்படுத்தும் அக உணர்வுகள்
Explicit Expressions of Love in the Poems of Siraikudai Aanthaiyar
Sangam Literature is an encyclopedia for understanding the ancient Tamil culture, realising the magnificence of tamil language and knowing information. Sangam literature comprises of many poems sung by various sangam poets over vareied periods of time. The poems are divided into parts namely poems dealing with implicit understanding and poems dealing with explicit understanding of the human life and culture. This paper deals with the exclusive poems in Kurunthogai, a collection of poems from Kurinci, Pallai, Neithal and deals with the explicit understanding of the love of the head of the house hold, the thalaivan towards his beloved through her friend. It enumerates the longing and yearning of love-stricken souls who refuse to accept even a small separation and they are consoled through the friend Siraikudi Aanthaiyar has vivified friendship through love. Hence, the paper analyses the poems written by Siraikudi Aanthaiyar in a detailed manner.
Keywords: Explicit Expressions, Love Poems, Siraikudai Aanthaiyar.
தன்னில் பிறரைக் காட்டிடும் பைந்தமிழ்க் குறள்
Replication of Others in Us Substantiated in Classic Kural
Literature is not just for entertainment the educated society; it is also not just a mirror of the picture of human ordinary life. It ought to foster good-will and harmont in the society. In today's society, luxury, drought, caste and religion are creating evil mindset in the minds of people and peoples are sparking riots and causing violence that instable the society. Instead of cultivating love for man, they prefer to create and benefit from hate. In such an environment, we must help others with love. Thiruvalluvar, the universal saint has stressed on the importance of compassion and love to see others spirit in others. Today, the mindset of people is to do evil to those who do evil. Hate is developing hatred and so does the idea of revenge stops the positive aspects of religion, ethnicity and language. On the contrary, the country is growing hostile for many reasons and ending in War. Therefore, Thiruvalluvar insists Universal Forgiveness to the International relationship. Hence, the paper tries to bring the holistic elements revealed in “Thirukkural”.
Keywords: Replication, Substantiation, Classic Kural, See thy Neighbor in You
அகப்பொருள் இலக்கணத்தில் பாங்கன்-பாங்கியர் கூற்று - ஓர் ஆய்வு
Tête-à-Tête of the Lover-Beloved in Agaporul Ilakkanam - A Study
Tamil life and culture is a primordal one. It has its origin many ages back in the realms of time. Owing to its nobility, Its classic quality, simplicity, sweetness are oozing in every Tamil work. ‘Agapporul Ilakkanam’ is an out-standing work that shows the life style of the classic Tamil society and life of the ‘Thalaivan-Lover and Thalaivi-Beloved’ in an enchanting manner. The tête-à-tête (conversation) of them are portrayed in a mesmerising manner and we can understand their moral stand, fear and other virtues in regard to the ancient Tamil society. Hence, the paper ponders to find out the ancient Tamil society and the portrayals of the heart-to-heart conversations of the ‘Thalaivan- Lover and Thalaivi-Beloved’ in a justifying note.
Keywords: Lover-Beloved, tête-à-tête, Agaporul Ilakkanam
வெறியாட்டு - தொல்காப்பியமும் அகநானூறும்
Veriyattu -Tholkappiyam and Agananooru
Dr. A. Govindarajan
‘Tholkappiyam’ is the first Grammatical work found in Tamil language and in the world of other languges. It teaches the people about the meaning of the life. It preaches the life’s truthfulness as existed in the Tamil Society in ancient times. It also evinces the rules that should be followed in life. ‘Agathinnai’ can be divided into two. One is ‘Kalavu’ and another is ‘Karppu’. Kalavu is a type of love that happen before marriage. Karuppu is the type that happen after marriage. Due to the feeling of love, the beloved become very lean because of missing her lover. In home, her mother on seeing her state performs the ritual ‘Veriyattam’ to make her normal. To make her daughter happy, the mother has done ‘veriyattam’ for her daughter. The mother performs veriyattam by cleaning her house, offering grains, and offering varieties of flowers to the God. She slaughters a goat and mix its blood in the rice and dedicate it to the Lord Muruga and hopes the ritual will heal her daughters sickness failing to understand her love-sickness. Hence, the paper tries to evince the on these rituals and superstitions prevailed in the ancient Tamil Society.
Keywords: Portrayal, Women, Women Equality.
‘பெண்’ கற்பிதத்தைப் பொதுமை செய்வோம்
முனைவர் ம. வித்யா
Making Portrayal of Women Equal
The world history looks at woman slavery’s from the foundation to foundation of every civilization. Our human society has spread so many different sithandhas yet, it has never realized the importance and need of women sithandhas. In the quest, Who is a woman? Is she a life? Soul? Body? Or feeling? Till now it is a question mark and we could not limitize the definition of woman because she is all in the world without her nothing exist. Old arts and scriptures describes only the beauty of women. At the moment, in society, what women writers are focusing on? What do they protest on? How does medaia depicts women in society? All of these factors are under debate and discussion. The subjects like History, philosophy, humanism, literature, art and culture should depict and describe women in different aspect to the change the world to be better from the past. Media and communication plays a vital role for this rapid and drastic change to strenthen women community. In such manner, this essay is written on the intention of generalizing the study on woman by denoting literary proofs of woman history from ancient to modern civilization.
Keywords: Portrayal, Women, Women Equality.
அறம் எதிர்நோக்கும் பாவேந்தர் அறம் கண்ட சீத்தலைச் சாத்தனார்
Justice Foreseen by Paventhar Justice Seen by Sathanar
Dr. A. Govindarajan
Tamil Society is a one with rich cultural past to the present. The rational ideas of them are seen through many ages. It seems a great wonder that a merchant of Rice. Corn and Cereals proved himself a great poet and wrote a great epic ‘Manimegalai’. It is the great Tamil poet Saathanar. His writings holds a social message with philanthrophic ideas. Hunger and poverty evades shyness and makes one to beg at the gates of others with his wife and children.This has been understood best by him on those times. Saathanar wrote ‘Manimegalai’ with the most important idea of erradicating hunger. Buddha preached on the evils of untouchability, To him there is no disparity as a chandala and a brahmin by birth.Only the ‘Good Habits’ and ‘Behaviour’ determine the individual. ‘Manimegalai’ is written on the Buddha's principles and emphasizes these ideas. All sorts of partialities lead people to become nuclear and evil. The social evils were condemned by the ancient Tamil writers and Sattanar also shows rationale to the society against the oppression of the Aryan way of partiality in all sides. Like him, Pavendhar Bharathidasan also shows the domination and partial laws thrusted on the Tamil people by the Aryan rulers. Both had the same view on social vices. Hence, the article focuses on a comparative mode to find out the sililarities, in poetic diction and the theme of solidarity in bringing compassion and justice.
Keywords: Poet, Saathanar, Manimegalai, Buddha, Education.
திருவண்ணாமலை மாவட்டம் உழவுத் தொழிற்சாற் கலைச்சொற்கள் - கருவிகள், நெல் பயிர்
Thiruvannamalai District Tillage industry Glossary - Tools, Paddy Crop
The present article evinces the role of the kings as found in the Kural. Thiruvalluvar says that the king as superior to the Brahmins who save the holy scriptures. The acclamation is true because that even the Brahmins saves the scriptures; the kings are the ones who save the Brahmins from the foes from other sects or religion. The treatise not only speaks of the glory of the king but of the role of monarchy, its ethical practices, valour of the king,
administration, time, place, action of the king in judicial, societal and war matters and so on related to the idea. Therefore, this paper finds evidences from the kurals of “Thirukkural
Keywords: Tillage Industry, Tools, Glossary, Paddy and Crops.
பாரதிதாசன் படைப்புகளில் சங்க இலக்கியப் பதிவுகள்
Sangam Literary Records in the Works of Bharathidasan
Dr. A. Govindarajan
The Sangam Literature is the ancient the treasury of Tamil literature. The Tamil tradition and legends link it to three Literary Era around Madurai. They were patronized by the Pandian Kings and the valour of the triumvirs are portrayed in the Sangam Literature. The Sangam age has been calculated as The first Sangam over 4,440 years back, the second over 3,700 years back, and the third over 1,850 years back before the start of the Gregorian era. Bharathidasan, a 21st century Tamil patriotic poet with a firebrand love for Sangam Literature has recorded the traces and virtues of the age –old tradition in his poems. It is also an acceptable fact that in his poems, Bharathidasan has recorded some changes and newness in estimating the existing order of his times nad strongly persuaded to adopt the new principles that hinder the development and social status of the modern Tamil world. Hence, the paper tries to cull down the facts of the Sangam Literature and the trails of them in Bharathidasan’s works.
Keywords: Ancient Tamils, Tradition and Legends, Sangam Literature.
சங்ககால மக்களின் வாழ்வியல்
Social Life of the People of Sangam Period
Dr. A. Govindarajan
Literature is the medium like a mirror that reflects human life. It paves a way for life to be lived in a decent way. By utilizing language as it’s medium, Literature helps man to live with humanity. Literature is born when if portrays human lives of beautiful people. From Sangam Period onwards it has been a cultural heritage that emanicipated Tamil people. It is the Golden Age of Tamil Society. The Sangam people had organized their lifestyle in accordance with their own technology, sense of beauty and their lands according to the weather conditions. Hence, the study evinces the basic traits of the Sangam people, food, clothing, education, service, faith, culture and civilization which have existed in those times.
Keywords: Social Life, Sangam Period, Culture, Civilization.
அகநானூற்றில் - உளவியல் நோக்கில் தலைவி
In Aganaanooru - The Beloved in Psychological Perspective
In Tamil Literature, Sangam Literature holds its zenith portraying the life style of the classic Tamil People. The Sangam Period is considered to be the virtuos society upholding social order and noble values. It is a treasure of ancient cultural traditions. It depicts the internal and external actions of man. The life of the Lover and beloved has been a famous theme in this literature because life without a man and woman and their love becomes futile; Sangam works shows them visually while reading through them. So, most of the Sangam Songs deals with the cocial life. Love is the common theme in it. Woman and her love has been pertrayrd in a chaste manner. ‘Aganaanooru’, a Sangam literary work portrays the life and longings of the beloved and tells us of her passion and emotions on her lover. Hence, the mind of the beloved is the main objective of the article and contemplates on the state of the beloved in psychological perspective.
Keywords: Aganaanooru, Beloved in Sangam Literature, Psychological Perspective.
பெருங்குளம் கிராமப்புறக் கோயில் வழிபாடும் மற்றும் திருவிழாக்களும் - ஒரு சிறப்புப் பார்வை
Temple Worship and Festivals of Perungulam Village - A Special Study
2 Dr. K. Paranthaman
Tamilnadu, a state very known for legendary Temples has many temples apart from them. Lots of Shiva Temples, Vishnu Temples, Amman temples, Ganesa temples and Murugan temples are there in cities as well as in villages in all parts of the state. In most of the Amman temples, festivals occur in the Tamil month of Aadi and Chitthirai. In Thoothukudi District, at perunkulam village you can see most of the small Amman temples have the celebration mode in the month Aadi. The first phase is the announcement of celebrations, this is normally done by hoisting a holy flag in a post (Kodimaram in Tamil- made up of wood) which is located in the entrance of a temple opposite to the main shrine. It is the traditional ceremony called as ‘kodiyetruthal’ (raising the flag) or ‘satruthal’ (announcement) or ‘Kappukattuthal’. After this ceremony, no one in the village should not consume non-vegegetarian foods and no one should leave the village till the festival is over. The next phase is festival celebrations with the procession of Godess normally in the midnight around the village with traditional music and dance (Karakam, Devarattam-folk dance). It shows the religious belief and the ritual of the tamil people. Hence, the paper studies on the in and around Temples and the Worship and Festivals practiced in Perungulam Village with a Special focus.
Keywords: Perungulam Villages, Village Temple, Worhip, Festival.
The Tamil people had termed their lands according to their ecological existence. They have named their lands as Kurinji, Mullai, Marutham, Neithal and Palai are the five geographical areas according to its ecological infrastructure. Palai is one of the five lands with distinct type of people who are indulging in robbery and murder. The Sangam poetries has evidences much more on these themes. ‘Kalithokai’ is one of the Sangam Literature evinces the life of the lover-beloved in terms of the lover’s voyage of business over the Palai lands. The fear of the beloved and the consoling nature of the lover can be seen evidently in ‘Kalithokai’. Hence, the paper tries to bring forth the details of the domestic life of the Sangam couple and the lover’s pass through the Palai.
Keywords: Palai, Tamil type of Land, Desert Passage
ஆநிரை வளர்ப்புத் தொழில்நுட்பம் அன்றும் - இன்றும்
Diary Farming Technology- Ancient and Modern
Dr. A Rajakumary
According to Hindu mythology, cattle farming refers to wealth. It becomes inseparable to human beings, because of it’s various needs they render in day to day life. Since ‘Sangakalam’ the people of ‘Mullai’ were practiced to a well mannered cattle livestock farming in their farms. Those peoples were called in the names idayar, Aayar, kovalar etc. Even the Kings of Sangam Age had also given a special attention to this field due to it’s highly valued diary products. According to the modern diary farming, grazing for a minimum 8 hours is important to yield better milk and for the health of the cows. There are ample evidences in Sangam Literature that Aayar’s had spent the entire day for grazing. Works such as ‘Mullai Pattu’, ‘Purananuru’ and ‘Perumpanattrupadai’ has citations on the importance of grazing. But the modern diary farming system believes in technologies, inventions and highly nutritious cattle feed for better yield than grazing them with herbs, shrubs and grass. Most of the vetenarians advice grazing is better for cattle and for better yield. Hence the paper concludes that diary farm technology prevailed in Sangam Literature is much better and advisable for all kinds of environments such as our modern times too.
Keywords: Diary Farming, Technology, Ancient and Modern Century, Sangam Times
தமிழ்வழிப் பள்ளிகளும் தமிழ்ப்பாடமும்
Tamil Medium Schools and Tamil Lessons
In general idea of Educational Psychology, Students will develop their thinking and creativity when they are educated in their mother language. Many of the great men from Gandhi, Bharati and of the other countries have highlighted the need and superiority of mother tongue education in their inception of education. Educationalists and the Nation makers like Ganghiji and Bharathi has evinced their stand on the importance of the mother tongue in the acquisition of knowledge in the young days of a child. The theories of them are taken as evidences to prove the need of inculcating knowledge through mother tongue. The article aims at examining the status of Mother tongue language schools, mother tongue education and mother tongue education during at the time of having vast increase of English school in this age.
Keywords: Tamil Medium, Schools, Tamil Lessons.
பாலைக்கலியின் பழக்க வழக்கங்கள்
முனைவர் நா. ஹேமமாலதி
The Life Style of the Palai (Desert) People
This is an article on the belief and beheviours and of thr Palai People.. The life style of those people are explained from the period of Tholkapyam. The below said topics are taken from the chapter “Palaikali” from the book named, “Kalithogai”. It briefly explains the life style, traditions and behaviours in different situations like festivals, banquet, methods of treatment, facial expressions of lenders and borrowers, the act of a newly conquered land by kings etc. From this study, We come to know about the various behavior and rituals practised by the Kings, Brahmin and common man in the early centuries. Hence, the paper discloses the facts from the primary and secondary sources regarding to the social life of the Palai people.
Keywords: Life Style, Palai (Desert) People.
Sumerian and its Tamil Connection - A Review
2Ari Marappan, 3Indradevi Marimuthu
This article reviews the researches on claims that Sumerian, a language isolate, is a Dravidian language, with close affinity towards Tamil Language. This claim goes back to the beginning of the 20th century and it is still going on until today. Even though this claim is not accepted by the mainstream scholars, in this paper, we have reviewed researches linking Sumerian language with Tamil language. We have summarized the researchers published and unpublished papers views on the ideas of the Sumerian and Tamil languages respectively. We have also included a new method in historical linguistics called Tamil Evolutionary Linguistics as a species of hermeneutic science, introduced by Loganathan as a way to identify Sumerian as Tamil. We have taken into consideration the works of HR Hall, A.Sathasivam, Loganathan, in this article. In this review, we have endeavoured to show not just a linguistic affinity between Sumerian and Tamil today but also a cultural continuity between these two in almost every aspect that defines a civilization.
Keywords: Sumerian Language, Tamil History, Isolate language, Dravidian