தொகுதி - 3, சிறப்பிதழ் - 3, தொகுதி - 2, சனவரி 2021
volume - 3, special lssue - 3, volume - 2, January 2021
தமிழ்மொழி மற்றும் இலக்கியத்திற்காக எமது “தமிழ் மொழி மற்றும் இலக்கிய பன்னாட்டு ஆய்விதழ்” (IJTLLS) தம் இலக்கிய மற்றும் ஆராய்ச்சி அரும்பணியைச் செய்து வருகின்றது. இது எமது மூன்றாம் தொகுதியின் மூன்றாம் சிறப்பிதழாகும். தமிழ் மொழி மற்றும் இலக்கிய பன்னாட்டு ஆய்விதழ் (IJTLLS) செம்மையாய் செயல்பட்டு ஆய்வுக் கட்டுரைகளை இணையத்தில் பதிப்பு செய்து உள்ளது. எதிர்காலத்தில் தமிழ் ஆராய்ச்சிகளை உலக அரங்கத்திற்கு எடுத்துச் செல்ல ஓர் ஆய்வுக்களமாக எமது இதழ் செயல்பட்டு வருகிறது. அதற்கு உறுதுணை அளித்த அனைவருக்கும் நன்றி.
28. தமிழகத்தில் காணபத்ய மரபின் பரவலாக்கம்
Spread of Ganapatya Cult in Tamil Nadu
We see that there are different types of religions in Tamil Nadu. Among them Hinduism, Christianity and Islam are the major religions. The basis of all these times is the spiritual food that prevails among the people. It is a religious historical fact that the Shiva tradition of worshiping Lord Shiva in Tamil Nadu later split into Cāktamākavum Gāṇapatyamākavum and kaumāramākavum. Among these, Ganapathyam became a religious sect centered on the worship of Lord Ganapati. This article aims to see the spread and growth of this sect in Tamil Nadu.
Keywords: Ganapathyam, Ganapati, Shiva tradition.
29. மார்க்சியம் நோக்கில் சங்க புறநூலில் அந்தணர் வேள்விச் சடங்குகள்
த.சந்தியா, முனைவர் வே.மணிகண்டன்
Marxist Perspective of Brahmincal Vedic Ceremonies in the Sangam External Literature
D.Santhiya, Dr. V. Manikandan
In Sangam Literature, there are many evidences on the Brahminical ceremonies and customs. They represent the influence of the society under the land lords under the ceremonies enunciated by the preaching community. They are seen as songs in many Sangam works. Those songs portray about the landlord society during the Sangam period. This article focuses on the profession, the influence gained through ritual life, and the exclusion of women in Marxian perspective.
Keywords: Marxist Perspective, Brahmincal Vedic Ceremonies, Sangam External Literature
30. தேவாரத்தில் சித்தாந்தம்
Siddantha in “Thevaram”
This article sets out to examine the devotional norms found in the short story on the domination of Vizhipa Ithayavendan and the struggle for their rights. Devotion and faith in God are the means by which man lives in unity and morality. In today's environment man forgets unity and lives on the basis of caste and religion. This leads to many struggles between human beings, such as the superior and the inferior, and this article examines how the author handles this in the short story.
Keywords: Piety, Short Story, Vizhi. Pa. Idhayaventhan, ‘Aathikkam’
31. புறநானூற்றில் பண்டைய தமிழ்ச் சமூகத்தின் சமயச் சூழல்
மு.சரண்யா, முனைவர் பே. மஹேஸ்வரி
Religious Context of the Ancient Tamil Community in “Purananooru”
M.Saranya, Dr P.Maheshwari
Religion was a small part of the social life of the Sangakala people. It can be said that religions do not even fill the place of love and heroism which is revered as the two eyes of the ancient Tamils. However, there were also some basic tenets for the formation of religions in those days. But it should be considered as the starting point for the emergence of religions and the stage of development. At the same time, the Sangam songs make it clear that the people who lived in ancient Tamil Nadu did not accept a particular religion by the king or emperor and live according to its norms and that they have been living the indigenous life spontaneously in the religion. Moreover, the great poets in their songs put forward the idea that no king can live or exaggerate any one religion and oppress the other. The article thus sets out to explore and describe the place of religion in the lives of people in the “Purananooru”
Keywords: “Purananooru”, Ancient, Community, Religious, Context.
32. ஆண்டாள் பாசுரங்களில் அழகியல்
Stylistic Elements in the Hymns of Andal
Andal is one of the most extraordinary personalities in religious history. She is known in her native tongue in Tamil as an Alvar, one who is ‘immersed’ in the depths of enjoyment of God, the omnipresent mysterious One. Tradition reckons twelve Alvars, of which Andal is the only female. Between fifth and ninth centuries, in the Tamil speaking region of south India, these saints revitalized the Indian religious milieu, sparking a renewal of devotional worship throughout the subcontinent. Travelling from place to place, from temple to temple, from holy site to holy site, they composed exceedingly beautiful poetry to their Divine Beloved, Vishnu, as an expression of their love for Him.
Keywords: Stylistic Elements, Hymns, Andal.
33. நீலகேசியில் சமண அளவைக் கோட்பாடு
மு.சாரதா, முனைவர் குளோரியா வி.தாஸ்
Jaina Logical Doctrine in the Epic “Neelakesi”
M. Saratha, Dr. Gloria V.Dhas
“Nilakeshi”, one of the Tamil epics, was created to spread the ideas of the Jain religion. The epic aims to persuade philosophers to accept the Jain religion by pointing out the inadequacies of other philosophies, including Buddhism, according to the rules of metrology. Munichandra Bhattaragar gives a body to a demon-possessed woman named Neeli and makes her suitable for arguing by advising the ideas of Jainism. She worships him and invites the Buddhists to an argument, defeats them logically and establishes the Jain religion.
Keywords: “Neelakesi”, Jaina Doctrine, Logic, Epistemology, “Kundalakesi”, Buddhist.
34. காரைக் காலம்மையாரின் இறையனுபவம்
முனைவர் நா.ரா. சிபஜா
Karaikal Ammaiyar’s Experience of God
Dr. N. R. Shibaja
This article is about the Woman Nayanmar Saint Karaikal’s experience of God, her youth and the changes in her married life. The article premeditates on music, meditation and worship as seen in the depiction of Karaikal Ammaiyar. There are deep spiritual matters that give peace of mind to a person. Karaikal Ammaiyar haad experienced such bliss in her life. It is also evident that Nayanmar chronology had appeared to explain the relationship between God and the Life of the nayanmars. This article sets out to bring out the divine experience of Karaikal Ammaiyar in an interpreting manner.
Keywords: Karaikal Ammaiyar, Experience of God.
35. “துயில்” புதினத்தில் பக்தியும் மனித நம்பிக்கையும்
இரா. சுபாஷினி, முனைவர் வே.மணிகண்டன்
Piety and Human Trust in the Novel “Thuyil”
R. Subashini, Dr. V. Manikandan
S.Ramakrishnan examines the devotion and trust in his novel "Thuyil". He elucidates trust and close trust that this devotion brings through his characters. Basically, belief in God was created to discipline man. The man born of this day falls prey to many superstitions in the name of devotion. Ignorant people create the mentality that sin is the fruit of sin. In that development he pays tribute to God and performs many remedies to alleviate him from sin and suffering. In reality, ignorance creates a mindset among the people that the benefit of sin is pain. Ramakrishnan’s characters are a set of human piety and human trust. So, this article sets out to explore how the creator handles these elements in the novel “Thuyil”
Keywords: Human Trust, Piety, Novel “Thuyil”
36. பத்துப்பாட்டில் மக்களின் வழிபாட்டு நெறிமுறைகள்
Worship Ethics in “Pathupaattu”
When a man doesn’t have any faith on his own action, he relies upon supernatural power. When he leads a life along with nature, he starts trusting it. Man worshipped nature at the beginning and later he has given different forms to nature. This led to idol worship. Murugu, which was nature worship later transformed to be the worship of Lord Muruga. There is a belief that if god Muruga is believed and worshipped, we are blessed both in this earthly life as well as eternal world. This is clearly explained in ‘Thirumurugaatruppadai’, for the devotees. In ‘Madurai Kanchi’, it is quoted that women in those days went Buddhist shrines with their family in order to learn how to lead a disciplined life. Such incidents are documented in the ancient Sangam Literature. Brahmins or Priests had done their Yagas and prayers without any flaw. Vedas were learnt and recited in all the rituals. All these stand as a proof of their discipline followed in religious rituals. This shows their staunch belief on religion and discipline. Hence, this article investigates the ethics of worship as portrayed in “Pathupattu”.
Keywords: Thirimurugaatruppadai, Earthly life, Eternal world, Buddhist Shrines, Rituals.
37. நாலாயிரத் திவ்யப் பிரபந்தம் காட்டும் மலைநாட்டுத் திருத்தலங்கள்
லோ. சிவக்குமார், முனைவர் ந.சிவகுரு
The Mount Holy Temples as shown by Nalayira Dhivya Prabhandha
L.Sivakumar, Dr. N.Sivaguru
Nalayira Dhivya Prabantham is a celebrated spiritual work that sings on the glory of Thirumal. It is one of the best books in the Vaisnava sect. there are mant temples foe Thirula or Vishnu atop the hills and mountains all over India and especially in Tamil Nadu. Nalayira Dhivya Prabantham praises Thirumal for his omnipotent nature. This article explores the mount temple of Lord Vishnu and the legendary and mythological significance of the temples.
Keywords: Dhivya Prabhantham, Azhvaargal, Dhivya Desam, Pancha Pandavar, Thirumozhi.
38. இறைமையும் மனிதமும்: மதுரகவியார் மற்றும் திருப்பாணர் (ஆழ்வார்கள்) பாடல்களில் ஓர் ஆய்வு
முனைவர் சீ செஞ்சுலட்சுமி
Divinity and Humanity: A Comparative Study in Madhurakkavi’s and Thiruppaanar’s (Alvars) Paasurams
Dr. S Chenjulakshmi
Bhakti is the purest form of love towards the Divine God. Out of the six Hindu denominations, which were prevalent in India in olden times, Vaishnavism considers Maha Vishnu as the Supreme Being. Followers of Vaishnavism are called as Vaishnavas or Vaishnavites. The Alvars, which literally means "those immersed in God", were Vaishnava poet-saints who sang praises of Vishnu as they travelled from one place to another. They established temple sites such as Srirangam, and spread ideas about Vaishnavism. Their poems, compiled as Divya Prabhandham, developed into an influential scripture for the Vaishnavas. The focus of this essay is on Madhurakavi Alvar and Thiruppaana Alvar ,who saw human in divine form and divinity in human form respectively .
Keywords:Divinity, Humanity, Alvars, Paasurams, Vaishnavism.
39. தமிழ் இலக்கண நூல் உருவாக்கத்தில் சைவ சமயத்தினரின் பங்களிப்பு
ம.செந்தில்குமார், முனைவர் ரா.தேவணன்
The Saivist Contribution in the Creation of Tamil Grammar
Ancient Tamil grammatical literatures are influenced by religion. One can feel the pro-religion character found in Sangam literature as well as in modern literature. However, they are not considered to be the literature of a particular religion. Post-Sangam epic, scriptures, devotional literature and later literatures and grammars have religious symbols. The Jains have played a major role in grammar. Grammars have been written by people of Saiva, Vaishnava, Christian, Islamic and Buddhist religions. However, most of the grammars were written by Jains and Saivas. The contribution of the Saivas is seen in abundance after the Jains. The grammatical contribution of Saivists from the ninth century to the nineteenth century can be considered as a Tamil gift.
Keywords: Tamil Grammar, Saivas Contribution.
40. இறைவட்டத்தில் மாணிக்கவாசகர்
Manikkavasakar in the Hold of Divine Grace
Devotional literature is a kind of influence of the religious movement. Manikkavasakar shows immense dedication to Lord Shiva. He yearns for the spiritual union with the almighty lord Shiva. As related to the concept of omnipotent and omniscient power, the saint Manikkavasakar sees all is the replica of Shiva and deeply merged into that spiritual cascade. So, he assumes God is regarded as his husband or leader and wife as well. By act of this, he thinks that he integrates easily with God without any intervention. So, the paper takes this concept into concern and traces the hold of divine grace on Manikkavasakar as seen in the spiritual epic “Tiruvachakam”
Keywords: Devotional Literature, Manikkavasakar, God’s hold “Tiruvachakam”.
41. கம்பரின் அனுமன் தூது
ஆ.தமிழ்ச்செல்வி, முனைவர் கு.கண்ணன்
Kambar’s Message of Hanuman
In Kambr’s “Ramayana”, the service of Hanuman is the one best portrayed to take the level of piety of Hanuman on Lord Rama in an ethereal level. Hanuman volunteered on the side of good standing with Rama to search Sita who was abducted by Ravana and dedicates whole-heartedly to save Sita. In the pursuit of it, Hanuman has gone to Lanka to act as an ambassador to solve this issue in terms of moral judgment. He takes the message of Rama and goes to meet Sita and show the might of Rama to Ravana. This article depicts the situation that Kambar dealt keenly to portray the ambassadorship oh Hanuman.
Keywords: Hanuman, Raman, “Ramayanam”, Ambassadorship.
42. ஆண்டாள் பாடல்களில் அக இலக்கிய மரபுகள்
Interior Literary Traditions in the Songs of Andal
This article is set to explore the Internal literary traditions found in Andal songs. Andal dedicates her life to Thirumal and looks at everything as she has seen the almighty God. No other scene enters into her mind rather than the supreme nature of the Lord. She looks for the spiritual union with him. She has only one mind and act. Even she speaks with her mouth; she participates not in any act but on the consciousness of Kannan. She was hailed by the spiritual scholars as the one who transcended the Alvars. Hence, the article focuses the internal life of Andal as evinces through her poems.
Keywords:Interior Life, Literary Tradition, Songs of Andal
43. அருளவதார காப்பியத்தில் அறங்கள்
V.திராவிடச்செல்வி, முனைவர் தி.சிவகாமி
Ethics in the Epic “Arulavatharam”
V. Dhiravida Selvi, Dr. T.Sivakami
Many Christian epics have appeared in Tamil. Christian epics have contributed to Tamil literature by Christian Missionaries and others. Maria Anthony's Christian epic “Arulavatharam” gives both the Old Testament and the New Testament in a total form. The epic outlines the various principles that human beings must adhere in their lives. The epic symbolizes the improvement of life and emphasizes the need for human beings to adhere to morals, education, orthodoxy, and affection.
Keywords: Christian Epics, Old Testament, New Testament, Morals, Truth, Love
44. எட்டாந் திருமுறை யாப்பியல்: வெண்பா யாப்பு
Prosody of Ettam Thirumurai: Venba Metre
The songs of the Manikkavasakar composed during Ettam Thirumurai can melt the mind, body and soul of the person whoever comes over it. Ettam Thirumurai, in the history of Tamil Prosody, there are many genres in ‘Metre’, and folk songs and they have multiple features. This article examines the structure and significance of the 28 (28 - 1 = 27) Nerisai Venpa Yappu within the three volumes of Tiruthasangam, Thiruvenpa and Pandaya Naanmarai.
Keywords: Manikkavasakar, Tamil Prosody, Metre, Nerisai Venpa Yappu
45. மாணிக்கவாசகரின் இறையின்பப் பேறு
அ.தீபா, முனைவர் கோ. சுப்புலட்சுமி,
The Divine Bliss of Manikkavasakar
A. Deepa, Dr.K.Subbulakshmi
The immersion of the soul in worldly goods is worldly pleasure. As it is, it is the bliss of the soul to be united with the consciousness of the Lord is vital for a Shiva devotee. These can be called "divine birth", "red birth" and "pearl". Pearls also mean "getting home". The word has two meanings, house and birth. To attain such state, all karma must be removed. It indirectly means to get the grace of Lord Shiva. Manikkavasakar is the recipient of the ubiquitous devotee of Lord Shiva in spiritual didactics. The purpose of this article is to explore the “pearls” of baptism in Manikkavasakar’s inspired liturgical poems from “Tiruvachakam”.
Keywords: Manikkavasakar, “Tiruvachakam”, Bliss, Boon, Lord Shiva.
46. சங்க அகநூல்களில் ஆயர்களின் பக்திநிலை
மு.தீபா, முனைவர் கோ. சாந்தி
The Devotion of the Aayars in the Sangam Scriptures
M. Deepa, Dr. G. Shanthi
Indian society is understood to include the cultures of different ethnic groups. The Sangam literature shows that the Tamil community has a similar tendency. Mullaitinai exemplifies the pastoral grazing community in Sangam Poems. The shepherds are the ones who belong to the rural parts of the ancient Tamilakam. Still their successors exist in society today. This article examines the nature of the devotion of the Idayar people, such as the Mullai people. Aiyars are mostly called Aiyar, Idayar, Konar and Kovalar. Those who are engaged in cow and cow herding are called ‘Aiyar’. They also followed the Doctrine of God. The Aiyar men praised Mayonna and his grace, which had the power to protect them and the climbers from harm if they climb. Mayonnaise Thirumal, the goddess of the land of Mullai is the deity, who creates love, unites lovers, unites separated lovers and gives good fortune to keep Mullai love alive. So, the article deciphers the devotional state of the pastoral men.
Keywords: Sangam Literature, Agam Songs, Aiyar, Mullai Land, Bakthi, Thirumal.
47. மாணிக்கவாசகரின் பரதுரியாதீத நிலை
Manikkavasakar’s Spiritual Transcendence
In accordance with Shaivism, there lies a compilation of twelve volumes compendium of hymns among which “Thiruvasagam” and “Thirukkovaiyar” stands eight in rank. The objective of this paper is to portray the experience of Manikkavasakar’s oneness with God through “Thiruvasagam”. In “Thiruvasagam”, Manikkavasakar portrays the ways to attain enlightenment whereas in Thiruperundurai he projects incarnation of lord Shiva as his Guru. Further, Manikkavasakar deciphers the barriers caused by the five human senses to accomplish spirituality, which indeed helped him attain sainthood. Thus he has also mentioned it in several places throughout his writings. Manikkavasakar carved a niche for himself through his individual talent by feeling the presence of God not through his mortal state but rather through his insighfulness. Manikkavasakar states in his spiritual epic that God is his mentor in the mortal world and a third eye or sixth sense within himself in a formless form. Manikkavasakar in his writings, with a great pride, frequently acknowledges the insight on realizing God and spirituality of Lord Shiva and repeatedly states how God has become his oneness with body, mind and soul.
.Keywords: State of intelligence, ignorance, spiritual awareness, God’s Possession of Manikkavasakar, Insight and Lord Shiva’s light form, Spiritual Transcendence
48. ஆழ்வார்கள் உணர்த்தும் பக்தியின் பாடுபொருள்
The Objective of Devotion as Evinced by the Alvars
Worship has been a cultural tradition from that time to the present day. That worship is set in the form of nature, idol or a deity. Of these, the deities worshiped are Shiva and Thirumal. The sages like Nayanmars and Alvars, who realized the greatness of the Lord, received the grace of the Lord and expressed the bliss through their songs. The Alvars set out to explain the theology that led them to reach Tirumala. This article illustrates how the disciples have reached the Lord by the love of the Lord, and how the Alvars have handled the common principles of Tirumala's incarnation, the uniqueness of Tirumala, the specialty of Vaishnavism, and the one who can remove birth pains.
Keywords: Vaishnavism, Alvars, Thirumal, Lord, Poems, Divine, Adiyar
49. சைவ நோக்கில் ஐந்திலக்கணக் கடவுள் வாழ்த்துக்கள்
சி.பாரதி, முனைவர் இரா.வசந்தமாலை
Invocation of Gods in the Penta Grammatical Works in Saiva Perspective
S. Bharathi, Dr.R.Vasanthamalai
Ilakkana Vilakkam - Vaithiyanatha Tesikar, Muththuveeriyam - Muthuveera Upathiyayer, Swaminatham - Swami Kavirayar. All three books are unique in its feature and come under the category of Aindilakkaṇa texts and pattiyal texts. Grammar enlightenment is one of the five grammar books that appeared in the seventeenth century. Both Muththuveeriyam and Swaminatham are pentagonal texts that appeared in the nineteenth century. Ilakkana Vilakkam prioritized the prominence of Lord Shiva in three chapters and Muththuveeriyam prioritized the prominence of Lord Shive in five chapters. Swaminatha, revealed that Nathakariyamam Vindoli is based on the principle of vegetarianism, and that Ganesha worshiped Lord Perumal through Pillaiyar Vanaka Venpa. In this paper, the researcher examined the principles of vegetarianism in the works of Vaithiyanatha Tesikar, Muththuveera Upadhyayer, Swami Kavirayar.
Keywords: Ilakkana Vilakkam, Muththuveeriyam, Iraivanakkam, Saiva Siththantham.
50. ஆன்மீக வளர்ச்சியில் வாரியாரின் மேடைத்தமிழ் பங்களிப்பு
Variyar’s Tamil Oratory Contribution to Spiritual Development
The Variyar Swamigal has contributed for the Saiva sect spiritual development. His preaching attracted huge audience and became a revival movement of the 20th century. As the devotional movement for spiritual revival, it appeared to revitalize the souls in darkness. From the age of thirteen he travelled all over Tamil Nadu to the masses to cultivate dedicated devotion to God. This article describes the pioneering work of the Variyar Swamigal who guided the spiritual and human life though Stage oration.
Keywords: Kirubananda Variyar, Oration, Spiritual development, Devotional movement.
51. திருமுருகாற்றுப் படையில் முருகனின் சிறப்புகள்
ப. பியூலா, முனைவர் நா.ரா. சிபஜா
Forte of Muruga in “Thirumurukaaruppadi”
B.Beula, Dr. N. R. Shibaja
Music, meditation and worship are the virtues that give man peace of mind. Although there are many Literatures on love and heroism, “Thirumurukaarappadi” is the first devotional book to focus on devotion. It tells the way that Lord Muruga enchants his disciples and how he treats his devotees in devotion and the merits blessed by Lord Murugan. The elegance of Lord Muruga is told in Thirumurkaaruppadi. The purpose of this review is to explain how Nakkeerar treats the glory of Lord Muruga in his spiritual work.
Keywords: Forte of Muruga, “Thirumurukaaruppadi”, Nakkeerar.
52. பக்தி இசை வழிபாட்டில் நாதஸ்வரம்
Nadhaswaram in Musical Bhakthi Worship
In India kings ruled various places. During their period they built many temples and supported Tamil spiritual classics like “Thevaram”. They Patroned Nadaswaram and Tavil during the prayer in temples. Nadaswaram is a wind instrument is called “peruvangiyam” in Tamil. During temple festivals, Nadaswaram is played in various manner before the God by the Nadaswara Vidwans. They play many genres like Mallari, Ragam Thana, Pallavi, Kalpana swara, and many musical notes in the name of God. ‘Oyyali’ is a main item while playing Nadaswaram. During street procession of God, Mallari is to be played by Nadaswara Vidwans. At early morning in the temple Thirupalliyeluchi is played by Nadaswara vidwans. The development of music is based on the condition of temple, kings and musicians.
Keywords: Nadhaswaram, Music, Bhakthi Worship, Mallari, Bowli, Oyyali, Alabana.
53. ஆண்டாளும் வைணவ பக்தி நெறியும்
முனைவர் பீ. பெரியசாமி
Andal and Vaishnava Devotion
Dr. B. Periyaswamy
About a thousand years ago in Srivilliputhur in the Pandya country, on the day of Adipura, Andal was born. “Jegathuthithal Vazhiye in Thiruvadipuram!” is her nickname. Andal was found as a small child under the Thiruthuzhai soil in Nandavanam. Periyalvar brought up her as his daughter. Periyarvar nicknamed the child Gothai. As the child was found in the flower garden, the word "kothai" which means garland seems to have been given to the child as a proper name. Periyalvar was working to build a tirumala for Perumal. Through Andal, one can feel the profound devotion of the Lord as herleader and mixed with HIM. On seeing the love of Andal, Thirumal has elevated her to the status of a deity and the later society has been practicing the worship of Andal. Andal’s Bhakti shows that how a women and attained to the level of deity through her true devotion.
Keywords: Devotion, Vaishnavism, Andal, Vishnu, Love, Thirupavai.
54. சிலப்பதிகாரச் சமயங்கள்
அ.மகபுபூ, முனைவர் ச.முத்துவேல்
Religions in “Silappathikaram”
There are many religions in Tamil Nadu during the Silappathikaram period. The Tamil people follwed many religions. Tamilians do not have hatred or bigotry due to religious differences. They live peacefully giving space to the people who follow other religions. Elangovadigal, the author of the epic has portrayed the imperial characters religion to common people’s religion, the way of people lived, the religious tolerance, acceptation of truth and other virtues in other religions. This article establishes that they all lined together as Tamilians even though they followed different religions.
Keywords: “Silappathikaram, Religions, Tamil People, Depiction of Religions.