தமிழ் மொழி மற்றும் இலக்கிய பன்னாட்டு ஆய்விதழ்

அறிஞர்களால் மதிப்பீடு செய்யப்படும் அரையாண்டு பன்னாட்டு ஆய்விதழ்

UGC CARE Listed Journal From July 2020

VOLUME – 4, ISSUE - 2, JANUARY 2022

தொகுதி – 4, இதழ் 2, சனவரி 2022

Articles 01-21

வாழ்த்துரை

தமிழ்மொழி மற்றும் இலக்கியத்திற்காக எமது தமிழ்மொழி மற்றும் இலக்கிய பன்னாட்டு ஆய்விதழ் (Ijtlls) தம் இலக்கிய மற்றும் ஆராய்ச்சி அரும்பணியைச் செய்து வருகின்றது. இது எமது நான்காம் தொகுதியின் இரண்டாம் இதழாகும். இத்தொகுதியில் இருபத்தி ஒன்று ஆய்வுக்கட்டுரைகள் இடம் பெற்றுள்ளன. இவ்வகையான சிறந்த ஆய்வுக்கட்டுரைகளின் ஆய்வுத்தொகுப்பினை ஆய்வாளர்களுக்கு வழங்குவதில் ஆனந்தமடைகிறேன். ஆய்வாளர்களின் அனைத்து கட்டுரைகளையும் ஆய்வு நெறிமுறைகளின்படி தணிக்கைச் செய்து  மதிப்புரை வழங்கி செம்மைப்படுத்தி  தமிழ் மொழி மற்றும் இலக்கிய பன்னாட்டு ஆய்விதழ் (IJTLLS) இணையத்தில் பிரசுரம் செய்து உள்ளது. எதிர்காலத்தில் தமிழ் ஆராய்ச்சிகளை உலக அரங்கத்திற்கு எடுத்துச் செல்ல ஓர் ஆய்வுக்களமாக எமது இதழ் செயல்பட்டு வருகிறது. அதற்கு உறுதுணை அளித்த அனைவருக்கும் நன்றி.

-பதிப்புக்குழு

 
 

1. சங்ககால மக்களின் உற்பத்தி சூழலமைவுகள்

மு. அஜீத்குமார், முனைவர் ந.இளங்கோ


The Production Ecosystems of the Sangam People

M. Ajith kumar, Dr N. Ilango

Abstract

The people who belonged to the Sangam period were aware of the ecosystem of the lands almost two thousand years ago. They had employed a variety of methods to boost up the production of food and elevate the economy of the community. Among their modes of productions, agriculture, animal husbandry, fishing, salt production was the primary occupaions. Apart from this, the ‘Sangam Literature’ has recorded the instances of mixed economic environment amidst the people of the Sangam period, with small-scale industries such as beekeeping, tuber excavation, basket weaving, net weaving, pearl and conch diving. This study is intended to analyse and interpret the production ecosystems of the Sangam people. The article goes on to describe the personality they acquired in the production methods of the time. The study brings out the developmental stages of the production in agriculture, the nature of the agricultural lands and the methods of cultivating the crops effectively, which can be of great benefit to the modern systems and community that demands massive food requirements with ecofriendly perspectives. In addition to this, this article also reveals information about the business methods adopted by the Sangam period in the four land forms that people worked to meet their needs through the Sangam Poetry.

KeywordsSangam Literature, Production Ecosystems, Four Land forms, Agriculture, Animal Husbandry, Fishing, Salt Production, Business, Ecofriendly

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2. புலம்பெயர் வாழ்வில் முகவரி தேடும் காந்தள் மலர்கள்

இரா. கருப்பையா


The Search of Identity of the Sri Lankan Tamil Refugee in Diasporic Life

R. Karuppiah

Abstract

In Tamilnadu, the Srilankan Tamil refugees have been living in the temporary shelters without having decent status in more than 25 Districts since 1980s. Living without the status of refugee is a tragic one. Srilankan Tamil refugees encounter painful lives in the migrated countries particularly in Tamilnadu state of India. In the migrated places, the younger generations have been encountering scores of problems in school learning, and job opportunity for the graduated students and decent livelihood and to obtain the citizenship. They are in an identity crisis that hamper their lives psychologically and suffer eternally for the political crisis. All the issues based on the diasporic experiences have been discussed elaborately in Tho. Pathinathan in his works “Tamil Akathin Eiyha Agathigal”, “Porinmarupakkam”, “Ezha Agathigalin Thuyara Varalaru” and “Thavippin Vazhvu”. By taking into account the works, this article try to address the expectation of the refugee children and finding solutions to their problems by conducting field work among them in refugees’ camps located in the southern districts of Tamilnadu. This is the prime objective of this research article.

KeywordsMigration, Refugee, Children Education, Longing, Srilankan refugee Camp.

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3. பதினெண் கீழ்க்கணக்கு நூல்களின் முதல் பதிப்புகள்

முனைவர் சே. கரும்பாயிரம்


The First Editions of the Pathinen Keezhkannakku Noolgal (The Eighteen Books)

Dr S. Karumbayiram

Abstract

The songs sung by the poets who excelled in the Tamil language in ancient times are included in the collections of ‘Ettuthogai’ (Eight Volumes), “Patthupattu” (Ten Volumes), and ‘Pathinen Keezh Kanakku Noolgal’ (Eighteen Books). It includes ‘Naaladiyaar’ and so on. The fact that our ancestors wrote and preserved these descriptions in palm leaves, called ‘Olaichuvadi’ (Palmleaf manuscript). The ones written in olaichuvadi formerly were now on replacement of paper. The texts written on the Olaichuvadi was written by the authors at a time was not clear today because of decay and archaic nature of the text. These were called "Uraipadi" (textual explanation). It has been the Guru's tradition for the teacher to teach the students a lesson and to write down what the students have asked the teacher to do. After the discovery of the paper, they wrote texts similar to the ones written on palm leaves. They called it the paper chuvadi. Thus writing on paper and it continued till the nineteenth century. With the invention of the printer at the turn of the century, the grammar and literature on the olaichuvadi began to rise one by one for print. In that sense, ‘Thiruvalluvamalai’ was first published in Tamil Literature in 1812 along with ‘Pathinen Keezhkanakku’, ‘Thirukkural’ and ‘Naladiyar’. Thereafter, each of the ‘Pathinen Keezhkanakku”, such as ‘Asarakovai’, ‘Eladi’, was published by the editors until 1931. Early publishers who published the book from the Olaichuvadi performed various tasks such as searching for Olaichuvadi, copying, reading, approving, and researching. Arumugam Naavalar and more was the first to do so with excellence. That is why we call them “Pathippu Munnodigal” (Pioneers of Tamil publishing). The paper tries to trace the roots of the early period editions of Pathinen Keezhkanakku books.

KeywordsPathinen keezhkanakku, First Edition, Editor, Publishing, Well - researched

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4. எட்டுத்தொகையில் மெய்ப்பாடுகள்

மு.கெஜினா, முனைவர் சு. ஈஸ்வரி


Gesture in Ettuththogai (Eight Anthologies)

M. Kejina, Dr S. Eswari

Abstract

Eight Anthologies come under Agam part of life, the subject matter of ‘Ettuthogai’ deals with intangibles of life such as human emotions, love, separation, lovers’ quarrels, and all. Eight anthologies throw light on human emotions, thought process which is expressed through their five senses. In many places, the position of language is occupied by bodily gestures and movements. Eight anthologies portray the Sangam people’s relationship with others, their emotions, and thought processes with body language rather than speaking/written language in a grand manner. Thus, there is a need to study on the real zeal of the works of ‘Éttuthogai’. A detailed study of human gestures was needed to be done on those classical Tamil works. Hence, this paper aims to decode such elements based on gestures in the chosen works.

KeywordsEttuthokai, Gesture, External activities.

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5. தமிழ் இலக்கியங்களில் வைதீக நெறியின் செல்வாக்கு

முனைவர் பா. சங்கரேஸ்வரி


Influence of Vaidikaneri in Tamil Literature

Dr.B.Sankareswari

Abstract

Tamil, Sanskrit, Greek, Hebrew, Latin and Chinese are considered classical and ancient languages of the world. Of these, Tamil and Sanskrit flourished in the Indian subcontinent. Tamil and Sanskrit are rich in literature and grammar and are the source languages for the various languages of the Indian subcontinent. Tamil belongs to the Dravidian language family and Sanskrit to the Indo-Aryan language family. Sanskrit contributed to the linguistic mix between the two languages.The influences of one language on another cannot be overstated. Communication based on the influence of one language on the social, political, cultural and educational aspects of another language is considered here as the influence of the Sanskrit language. The influence of Brahmins is determined by their social, political and cultural status. It then goes on to describe the influence of Vedic morality in the socio-cultural context of Sangam literature and translation in the areas of language rule. In Tamil Literature, there are lots of evidences to see the Vedic ethics spread through the literary sources. It reveals the people of the ancient times and gives respect to the good and ethics for the society. This research paper brings out the influence of Vaidikaneri (Vedic Ethics) in Tamil Literature.

KeywordsTamil Literature, Vaidhigam, Ethics, Influence.

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6. பிரபஞ்சனின் சிறுகதைகளில் சமூக அமைப்பின் போதாமை

செள.சந்திரலேகா, முனைவர் இரா. மணிக்கண்ணன்


Inadequacy of Social Systems in the Short Stories of Prapanjan

S. Chandralekha, Dr R. Manikannan

Abstract

This research article proposes how the Tamil writer Prabhakaran has made great strides in the evolution of Tamil short story history using new experimental endeavors and techniques that reveal the problems in our social system. He has artistically transformed the inadequacies of social systems through his short stories. This article is based on his short stories, criticizing the narrow-mindedness of family, caste and educational social systems and its reactionary face. Moreover, the article examines Prapanjan’s short stories in general to find out new themes. It also delineates the nature of Prapanjan’s short stories and argues about the inadequacy of social systems like education, family and caste. In general, it explains the critical voice of Prapanjan and portrays the subaltern lives of Tamil People.

KeywordsPrapanjan, Short Story, Social Structure, Family, Education and Caste.

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7. எரியும் பனிக்காடு - தேயிலைத் தோட்ட வாழ்வும் பெண்களுக்கு இழைக்கப்பட்ட அநீதியும்

முனைவர் செ.சாந்தி


Eriyum Panikkadu (Flaming Snowwood) - Life in Tea Estate and the Injustices Done on Women

Dr S. Santhi

Abstract

Thirty- eight years later, the novel ‘Red Tea’ has been translated into Tamil and published in the title ‘Ëriyum Panikkadu’ (Flaming Snowwood). It signifies that women as a tender one but under violence she is like a burning snow. Women suffer too much at all places when they are prone to subjugation and violence. They work under very worst conditions for livelihood. In this novel, it describes about the Tamil families taken by the Britishers to work at the tea estates for their benefit. The novel portarays the untold miseries of the women they suffered in their custody. The chief purpose of the study is to bring to light the sexual harassment done on women, the unbearable condition of relationships, even deaths, the injustices inflicted on them during pregnancy and childbirth, the tears of suffering and death.

Keywords: Gangani, supervisor, contractor, metamorphosis of malaria.

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8. இலங்கைச் சித்தரது ஆன்மிகப் படைப்பிலக்கியம் புலப்படுத்தும் சிவ தொண்டு (யோகர் சுவாமிகளது நற்சிந்தனை நூலினை முன்னிலைப்படுத்திய ஆய்வு)

டாக்டர் (திருமதி) எஸ்.கேசவன்


The Explication of Shiva Devotion from the Divine Treatise of Ilangai Siddar (A Research Based on the Book of Ethics by Yogar Swami)

Abstract

The Siddhar sect has been deep-rooted in the Tamil world for a long time. The famous poet Mahakavi Bharati prides himself on being a Siddhan from the Mulan tradition. The thoughts of the Siddhars are notable among the periodical records. Sivayoga Siddhar, who came from the Siddhar tradition in Sri Lanka, is a great Siddhar spoken not only in Sri Lanka but also in many countries like the United States. Hawai Atheena (Pontif) Sadhguru was also a spiritual sage who revived the minds of over two million Sri Lankans in 1998 during the reign of Sivaya Subramania Swami. Many changes in human life have been caused by scientific development, rapid living conditions, and civilization. Thus, today is surrounded by confusion, turmoil, biological problems, worries etc. In this context, the author's expectation is to convey to the community the benefits of Shiva worship and the charitable practices both religious and social to ensure harmony and peace.

KeywordsShiva Devotion, Divine Treatise, Ilangai Siddar, Ethics, Yogar Swami.

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9. அகப்பாடல்களில் தலைவியின் கற்பு வாழ்க்கை

முனைவர் ம. சியாமளா


The Chastity Life of the Heroine (Thalaivi) in the Agam Songs

Dr M. Shyamala

Abstract

Sangam literature is the literary document that guides us to the life of the people of the Sangam period. Most of the songs are internal in attitude. Although both the hero (Thalaivan) and the heroine (Thalaivi) are referred to as protagonists in the internal literature, the majority of the songs are women-centered. In it, she is able to understand the best qualities of the hero and the boundless love she has for the lover in the life before marriage (Kalavu Manam). Furthermore, the introspections highlight rare traits such as the domestic duties, hospitality, and motherhood of the heroine who engages in chastity life (Karppu Manam) after marriage and living with her husband. One can find out more about the life of the heroine (Thalaivi) in the Agam songs. Hence, the article focuses on the chastity life of the heroine (Thalaivi) in the Agam Songs to bring out her noble traits.

KeywordsChastity Life, Heroine (Thalaivi), Agam Songs.

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10. தற்கால இலக்கியங்களில் மனித வள மேம்பாடு

மு.சுமதி, முனைவர் பா. தமிழரசி


Human Resource Development in Contemporary Literature

M.Sumathi, Dr P.Thamilarasi

Abstract

The theory of human resource development is a theory defined by the Western scholars. Society improves only when a person improves. The country improves only when society improves. Only when nations develop can all the nations of the world become superpowers. Human resources are therefore an essential factor that can be praised for the part of such development. Even if water, land and mineral resources are properly located in a country, there will be no use if there are no proper human resources to use them in a purposeful manner. Therefore, human resources should be cherished and protected as the main wealth of the country. Tamil contemporary literature is seen as a tool to capture today's society. Contemporary literature is a widespread study in all societies. Therefore, the novel 'Sanjaram' and the short stories 'Aram', 'Sootrukkanaku' are take to estimate the sources that correlate to human resource development. The purpose of this study is to explore and explain the theories of human development in these contexts in relation to Tamil literature and to see how scholarly definitions fit into contemporary literature.

KeywordsHuman Resource Development, Motivation, Sancharam, Aram, Sottrukkanakku.

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11. சங்ககால இசைவளர்ச்சியில் இசைக்குப் பாணர்களின் பங்களிப்பு

திருமதி சுஜாதா நிரஞ்சன்


The Contribution of Panars to the Development of Music in Sangam Times

Mrs. Sujatha Niranjan

Abstract

Music, the common language of the world, has the power to mesmerize human beings and animals with its effects. Poets, musicians and dancers from around the world graced the palace. Artists who excelled in folk songs and dances lived in the Sangam era. Music and dance were well developed during the Sangam period. Many types of rhymes and drums are played during the Sangam period. Music has been nurtured by musicians since prehistoric times. This is evidenced by the literary texts that arose during the Sangam period, beginning with the Tolkappiya period, such as the octave and the decimal. During this period, musicians such as Panar, Porunar, Kodiyar, Kinayar, Parayan, Tudiyar, Kadambar, Seiriyar, Vayiriyar, Kuiluvar, Madangar, Kannular, Kaniyar, Akavar, Ambanar, Iyavar, Pulluvar, Valluvar, Senniyar, Magadhar and Vedalikar, a feminine musician also developed music. Along with these, many musical instruments such Yaal, Murasas, Kina, Thattai, Kulir, Kottu, Pambai, Makuli, Madhari, Chillari, Akuli, Ellari, Padalai, Tadari, Tudi are also found. The purpose of this review article is to clarify the musical instruments played by them and their contribution to the development of Tamil music. Literary excellence is lived by the fact that poets have sung about the country, wealth, generosity, warfare, and triumph of the patrons. But the melody sung by musicians such as the singer, songwriter, lyricist, etc. must have dissolved over time from being musical to oral songs. References to these are widespread in Sangam hymns. Although some of the literature on Sangam literature is not fully available and the songs sung orally by the singers have been destroyed over time, the role played by the singers is not fully known. It is clear from these descriptions that musicians such as Panar, Porunar and Viraliyar have traveled to many places since pre-Sangam times to sing praises to kings and monarchs and that kings nurtured and supported them. However, it is possible to learn about the role of singers in the development of music through the news available in Sangam literature.

KeywordsSangam Literature, Panar, Music, Instruments, Musicians.

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12. சிலப்பதிகாரத்தில் அழல்

முனைவர் பெ. தனலட்சுமி


Fire in the Epic Cilapathikaram

Dr P. Dhanalakshmi

Abstract

Among the five elements, fire is one of the most powerful. Kannaki set Madurai on fire. The chastity of a woman can be compared to the highlights of fire. The five elements are very supportive tohuman beings and at the same time instrumental in their destruction. The sky, the earth, the air, the water, and the fire are all part of the senses, the eyes, the nose, and the ears. It is an impossible process for human beings to lead a life without perception and extroversion. In Tamil ‘Teen Suvai’ means ‘good taste. On the contrary, ‘Teeyitu Kozhuthudal’ means ‘put fire to’. Fire should burn where it should be needed. Rainwater should sprinkle where it is needed. From Kannaki Kovalan's wedding, fire burns until Kannaki burns Mamadurai. Madhavi and Kannaki show their anger in some circumstances they encounter injustice. It is also compared to fire by the writer Elango Adigal. Fire plays an important role in the epic. It is seen in the epic ‘Cilapathikaram’ at many places. In terms of character, background, concept, parables and metaphor ‘Cilapathikaram’ is fantastic and the element fire is used at many places to reveal symbolic representations. This study examines the various terms of syllabary such as fire, flame, sun, ray, and reveals its real concept.

KeywordsTripuram- Kanal- Vanil- Veyyavan- Attil Pukai- Erikathir - Kaykathir Selvan- Azhalpadu- Thimugam- Muthi- Karpu- Tanal- Neruppu.

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13. ஒப்பீட்டு நோக்கில் சங்க கால ஒலி மாசும் தற்கால ஒலிமாசும் அதன் தீர்வுகளும்

த. திருமுருகன், முனைவர் மு. பாண்டி


Comparative Study of Ancient Noise Polution and Modern Noise Pollution and Solutions

D.Thirumurugan, Dr M. Pandi

Abstract

The Sangam poets point out that the natural pollution mentioned in the Sangam literature. It seems very low because they live close to nature devoid of mechanical intervention like today. But in some songs there is a keen mention of noise pollution. Living and non-living organisms are greatly affected by this sound pollution. This article is designed to explore environmental definition, environmental environmental pollution, noise pollution its origins, hyperactivity, low noise, bird noise, animal noise, man's artificial noise, contemporary pollution thinking, pollution vulnerability and disease. Nature and the environment are interrelated. Environment means the ambience of life. Without that the ecology of the place will become dilapidated. The paper portrays the environment of natural environment free from any artificial pollution during the Sangam era and the corrupted modern era full of pollution, especially noise pollution. It caters possible solutions for it.

KeywordsEnviornment, Noise Pollution, Awareness, Mental depression, Solutions.

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14. ஐம்பெருங்காப்பியப் பிரதியில் வெளிப்பட்டு நிற்கும் தோழமை

த. நர்மதா, முனைவர் ரா. தேவணன்


Friendship in the Texts of Aimperungappiyam (Five Epics)

T. Narmatha, Dr R. Devanan

Abstract

Lives are multifaceted. Humans have advanced life than other species. They stretch life through relationships. They live by various morals. A poet has multi-faceted intellect and creates work from his thoughts. That was the way the ancient people become aware of the richness of the times and to live in harmony with the virtues of the people. Tamil literature records these elements. Literature is created by the life experiences of the people to stimulate people's interest not only in reading but to foster moral virtues of life. Life can be with different characters and there are ways to keep people with certain relationship. Friendship is categorized as a leading role and supporting role in literatures. Friendship is one of the very important relationships in everyones lives. In the Sangam literature, the Heroine (Thalaivi) is most commonly found with a friend (Thozhi). The friend is the one who supports to the love of the heroine and offers comfort to her in the event of a hero's separation and expresses her love to the hero. Friends form a relationship in which the heroine plays a greater role and leads their lives in a better way. In common, the nurse's daughter becomes a friend. Apart from these, Sangam literature does not record the personal biography of the friend. There are very few records of a friend who is the character who travels with the hero and heroine. The companion participates as a companion in the five msjot Tamil epics. Their personal lives can also be seen in the minority. This article describes the role of such friends through the epics.

KeywordsRelationships, Friend, Life, Supporting role, Five Major Epics.

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15. நன்மாறன் கோட்டைக் கதை சிறுகதைகளில் விளிம்பு நிலையினர்

அ. பரமேஸ்வரி


The Subalterns in the Short Stories of Nanmaran Kottai Kathai

A. Parameswari

Abstract

The group of people who face untouchability and oppression as the Tamil community transforms into a hierarchical social structure after the Sangam period. Records of these people are recorded from the Sangam period to the contemporary literature. The way in which the oppressed people are treated by the upper castes is very cruel. The lives of such oppressed people can be found in the short stories of Dalit writers. In the short stories of Imayam, the Dalit people who are killed because of the cow's victory in the race appear to be ignorant. Those who think that a downtrodden person should not come beyond politics are being shot. The policeman, who seeks to leave the police force due to caste fanaticism, can be seen living on the margins of the caste-stigmatized masses in the society, without proper legal protection. Hence, the article probes to cater down the life of subalterns in the short stories of Nanmaran Kottai Kathai.

KeywordsSubalterns, Hirarchy Caste System, Cow Racing, Crematorium, Policeman..

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16. வைரமுத்து படைப்புகளில் இயற்கை உணவும் மருத்துவமும்

முனைவர் ஜோ.பென்னி


Natural Food and Medicinal Values in the Writings of Vairamuthu

Dr J.Benny

Abstract

Human life is always bound with nature. No one can lead a healthy life moving against it. It is nature that gifts us with life-giving resources such as air, water and food. Only those who are in accordance with the will of nature can have physical well-being and so can have a healthy life. Even during physically unwell times, we get the nourishments to stabilize our body back, again from nature. Early humans respected and worshipped nature for its bounciness. They grew healthy together with it and never spoiled nature and its principle. But it is not the same these days. Later, human society has been blindfolded to the inventions that ease up their life, which they achieve at the cost of nature’s destruction. This search for ease of life has taken us to the level of being senseless beings who value artificial creations over natural gifts. In terms of life and healthiness, unhealthy and unnatural dietary practices have spoiled us and have degraded our natural abilities. In this situation, it is most significant to restore the traditional food and food habits back. Several writers and poets have made their stands to educate people on this fact and its significance. Among those writings, this work aims to research the thoughts Vairamuthu from his creations on natural food and food practices and its medicinal values.

KeywordsNatural Food, Medicine, Poet Vairamuthu, unhealthy foods and results.

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17. அய்யாவழி திருமணம்

முனைவர் த.மகேஸ்வரி


Marriage in Ayyavazhi

Dr D. Maheswari

Abstract

Ayyavazhi marriage is a custom in the Ayyavazhi faith system of South India. Usually, the trustees, the servants themselves or an experienced elder in Ayyavazhi assume the role of guru and sit down with the bride and perform the wedding ceremony. Like Hinduism, the system of marriage in Ayyavazhi has deep significance and meaning. It is seen as a sacred part of life. Family life is also taught as a primary austerity in the marriage blessing song. Weddings in the Ayya way usually take place at home while marriages take place in wedding halls. The wedding will also take place in a few minutes. It speaks about how a couple should keep the truth in life and love to have in themselves and to get the blessings of Gods and the almighty Lord Shiva. In basic, it shows the culture of the people who follow the system of Ayyavazhi marriage. It evinces also the ancient roots, rituals and heritage of the people in a lucid manner. Hence, this article details the moral ethics preached in the wedding hymn.

Keywords: Ayyavazhi, Marriage Blessing, Culture, Heritage.

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18. சங்க இலக்கியத்தை முன்வைத்து - இனக்கவர்ச்சியினால் தலைவன் தலைவியிடம் தோன்றும் மெய்ப்பாடுகள்

முனைவர் ப.முருகன்


Presenting the Sangam Literature – Reality of Gender Attraction Between the Hero and Heroine

Dr P.Murugan

Abstract

It is no exaggeration to say that human life from the Sangam period to the present has been associated with happiness. All creation of nature is subject to human experience. Man begins to live on the basis of these four, namely, love, heroism, gift and fame. There are many heroes who are heroes centered on love, there are many who are gifted and loved, and there are many who are famous for their love. The purpose of this article is to link the facts stated by ‘Tolkappiyam’ with the head of the Sangam literature. The article explores the cause of racism in the society of the time with an introspective perspective and suggests the need for education. It sets out to reflect on the realities that arise between men and women in terms of the gender relations and social order of the Sangam period people. This article also explores the perspectives of sociology, psychology and anthropology.

KeywordsSangam Literature Internal Discipline, Gender Attraction, Ethnicity, Secularism.

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19. அழகியல் நோக்கில் அழகிய பெரியவனின் சின்னக்குடை

அ.ஜாஸ்மின் ரேஷ்மா, முனைவர் சு.விமல்ராஜ்


An Aesthetic Perspective of Aazhakiya Periyavan’s Chinnakkudai (Tiny Umbrella)

A. Jasmin Reshma, Dr S.Vimalraj

Abstract

Aesthetics conveys to the reader the ultimate purpose and novelty of a work of art. A work becomes empty when it becomes aesthetically insensitive. All works would become empty without the ability to indulge in the emotions of the basic tastes of creative theory. Aesthetic taste completes the work of art in a fitting manner. It slowly conveys the content that is told within the work to the reader. Books are innovative in aesthetics and sophisticated in visualization. There are lots of aesthetic representations in Aazhakiya Periyavan’s Chinnakkudai (Tiny Umbrella). The writer has employed aesthetic sense to evince the theme of the story. It gives a perfect shape to the delivery of the story. The use of aesthetics becomes undeniable to modern Tamil writers. Thus, this article reveals the aesthetic technique featured in the iconic novel of the beautiful adult.

KeywordsChinnakkudai (Tiny Umbrella), Aesthetics, Representation, Technique.

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20. திருவிதாங்கூர் மன்னராட்சியும் தீண்டாமையும்

முனைவர் பா. ம ஜெயகலா


Travancore Monarchy and Untouchability

Dr P.M. Jayakala

Abstract

During the reign of the King in Travancore, the lower castes suffered greatly due to caste restrictions. Travancore had been ruled by the kings and his nephews. During the reign of the king, the people of Travancore were divided into superior and inferior on the basis of caste. In this partiality, the most vulnerable are the lower caste people. They suffer too much under the king’s tyranny. As a result, the people tried to overcome it but were affected more than in the previous state. Each caste was given separate jobs in the rule. The high castes entrust them going near and touching the lower castes as an act of sin. Untouchability also divided goods and industries into clean and unclean. Untouchability became the very worst of all vices and make people suffer physically and psychologically. The lower castes were subjected to many vices by the deadly system of untouchability. Hence, the article deciphers the state of untouchability in the monarchal rule of the Travancore Kingdom.

KeywordsTravancre, Lower Caste, Monarchal rule, Untouchability, Slavery

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21. கந்தபுராணத்தில் அகமரபுகள்

முனைவர் த.ஜெயலட்சுமி


Agam Ethics in Kandhapuranam

Dr. T. Jayalakshmi

Abstract

‘Tholkappiyam’ is the most ancient extant Tamil grammar text. ‘Tholkappiam’ has three parts. They are Ezhuthathigaram, Solathigaram, Porulathigaram. The first two parts focus on linguistics. The third part explains the meaning of life. Tamil literature of the those times describe the way how Tamils lived. Tholkappiar’s Porulathigaram explains briefly the way the Tamils lived in many aspects of life. ‘Kandha Puranam’ is one of the finest masterpieces available and it explains the birth and life of Lord Murugan. This was written by Kachiyappa Sivachariyar, a Tamil and Sanskrit scholar. He wanted to impart moralities for humanity through his epic ‘Kandhapuranam’ such as the destruction of morally reprehensible people like Sooran by the fiery God Murugan. Even though he describes about Lord Muruga’s history and war with Sooran he also included the Aga, Pura marabugal of ancient Tamil tradition. Particularly in Vallaiammai Thirumana Padalam of the book, he describes Aga marabugal a lot along with the storyline. The aim of this article is to decode Tholkappia Aga marabugal (ethics) in Kanda Puranam.

KeywordsTholkappiar, Kachiyappa Sivachariyar, Kandhapuranam, Agamarabugal.

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