தமிழ் மொழி மற்றும் இலக்கிய பன்னாட்டு ஆய்விதழ்

அறிஞர்களால் மதிப்பீடு செய்யப்படும் அரையாண்டு பன்னாட்டு ஆய்விதழ்

UGC CARE Listed Journal From July 2020

 

தொகுதி - 4, சிறப்பிதழ் - 2, ஜூன் 2022

Volume - 4 Special Issue - 2, June 2022

Articles 01- 46

பதிப்புரை

          தமிழ்மொழி மற்றும் இலக்கியத்திற்காகத் தமிழ்மொழி மற்றும் இலக்கிய பன்னாட்டு ஆய்விதழ் (Ijtlls) தம் இலக்கிய மற்றும் ஆராய்ச்சி அரும்பணியைச் செம்மையாகச் செய்து வருகின்றது. யு.ஜி.சி. கேர் (UGC CARE), எம்.எல்.ஏ (MLA) மற்றும் டி.ஓ.ஏ.ஜே (DOAJ) போன்ற ஆய்வுத் தளங்களில் மதிப்பீடு செய்யப்பட்ட எமது ஆய்விதழில் கௌரவ சிறப்பிதழ் ஆசிரியர்களாகப் பணியாற்றிட தன்னார்வம் கொண்ட பேராசிரியர்களுக்கு வாய்ப்பளித்துள்ளது. இது தமிழ் ஆய்வுலகில் மிகச்சிறந்த பணியாகும். சிறந்த ஆய்வுக்கட்டுரைகளைத் தமிழ் ஆய்வுலகிற்குக் கொண்டுவர எத்தணித்தே பழையன தெளிதலும் புதியன புனைதலும் எனும் பொருண்மையில் சிறப்பிதழ் நடத்தப்பெற்றது. அதற்கேற்றவாறு அறிவுத் தெளிவு கொண்ட தரமான 46 ஆய்வுக்கட்டுரைகளைப் பெற்று ஆய்வு நெறிமுறைகளின்படி தணிக்கைச் செய்யப்பட்டு மதிப்புரை வழங்கி செம்மைப்படுத்தி இணையத்தில் எமது ஆய்விதழ் வாயிலாக சிறப்பிதழில் பதிப்பித்தமைக்கு அகமகிழ்வடைகிறேன். ஆய்வுக்கட்டுரைகள் வழங்கி சிறப்பித்தத் தமிழ்ப்பேராசிரியர்கள், ஏனைய அனைத்துத் துறைப்பேராசிரியர்கள், எழுத்தாளர்கள், தமிழ் ஆர்வலர்கள் மற்றும் ஆராய்ச்சி மாணவர்களை மனதாரப் பாராட்டுகிறோம். தமிழ்மொழி மற்றும் இலக்கிய பன்னாட்டு ஆய்விதழ் செம்மையாய் செயல்பட்டு ஆய்வுக் கட்டுரைகளை இணையத்தில் பதிப்பு செய்து வருகின்றது. எதிர்காலத்தில் தமிழ் ஆராய்ச்சிகளை உலக அரங்கத்திற்கு எடுத்துச் செல்ல ஓர் ஆய்வுக்களமாகச் செயல்பட்டு வருகிறது. அதற்கு உறுதுணை அளித்த அனைவருக்கும் நன்றி.

முனைவர் த.மகேஸ்வரி,

பதிப்பாசிரியர் 

 
 

1. தக்கயாகப்பரணியின் போர்ப்படையும் போர்க்காட்சியும்

ந. அகிலா & முனைவர் த. மகிலா ஜெனி


The Army and War Scene in Thakkayagaparani

N. Akila & Dr. D. Mahila Jeni

Abstract

The paper investigates the hypothesis that one should welcome the enemy with a smile, should walk without arrogance, should not support evil and should have a forgiving character. An individual should be with virtuous character to become a man of ethics in life. Tamil society has followed ethics in life and war. They have serenely maintained ethics in all walks of life. Ancient myths of Tamil society prove the idea of chivalry and forgiving nature. “Thakkayagaparani”, one of such mythological treatises deals with the scenes of war, causes of war and forces underlying war. Based on the myths of the Hindu pantheon of Gods and Goddesses, the work details the innate nature that will make Gods into demons and demons into Gods. In the battle scene, the army of Gods and Veerabhatra's ghosts and demons fight. The scene where the Gods fight again after defeat, as Gods turn into demons and the demons into Gods shows how virtue makes difference between them. The scene where the female forces of the Goddess fight with the Gods, the battle scene between Veerabhatra and Tirumal, and the scene where Veerabhatra’s fight with Indra, Brahman and Tirumal as portrayed in “Thakkayagaparani” are explored in this article.

Keywords: Parani, Thakkayagaparani, War Troops, Battle, Veerabhatra.

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2. புறநானூற்றின் வழி பழந்தமிழரின் தொழில்முறையும் அளவையியல் சிந்தனையும்

முனைவர் ஞா. அந்தோணி சுரேஷ்


A Puranaanooru Perspective of Profession and Art of Measurement in the Times of Ancient Tamil People

Dr. G. Antony Suresh

Abstract

The ancient Tamil people used to practice nature-based industry. The Tamils took up the occupation which was connected with their life. It can be known that the Tamils were technical minded in all fields such as business methods, soil related studies, engineering, metrology and physics. The Tamils lived by dividing the land into five parts. They lived and worked according to the land they lived in. When we look back at the pages of history of two thousand and five hundred years of Tamil, we can see that Tamils have advanced knowledge. Ancient Tamil literature eloquently exemplifies that the ancient Tamil was the one who realized himself and measured his ideals. Even in the era of no education, poets have gone beyond the sky to sing and record about cosmic mediums. The business method and quantitative thinking of Tamils are being investigated through the evidences found in “Purananooru”.

Keywords: Plowing, Tools, Metal, Carpentry, Technology, Ancient Tamil People.

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3. பயன்பாட்டுத் தமிழ் இலக்கண நூல் உருவாக்கப் பின்புலமும் ஐரோப்பியர் வருகையும்

வெ. அம்பிகா & முனைவர் சா. சாம் கிதியோன்


Background of Tamil Functional Grammar and Entry of Europeans

V. Ambika & Dr. S. Sam Gideon

Abstract

The usage of a language depends on two major factors such as speaking and writing. Texts in Tamil that aids in classifying grammatic forms and techniques can be termed as Functional Tamil Grammar. Language is not static and changes over time and so does the grammar too. Due to this process there is an alteration in the grammatical structure. Texts on grammar helps us to understand this transition in a keen and systematic way. Texts that had the ability to explain the structure of Traditional Grammar came into usage during the times of Europeans. The last century there have been great advances and developments in Tamil grammatical thought and grammatical research due to the involvement of European Tamil scholars and the development of theories in modern language in this century. It is necessary to combine modern linguistic concepts with traditional grammatical concepts and write grammar in line with the structure of the contemporary Tamil language. Tamil grammar in schools and colleges is largely based on the “Nanool” to this day. The European era serves as a time stamp for the inception of Functional Grammar texts in Tamil. The influence of education based on European language and the spread of Christianity lead to the formation of Grammatic structures in the style of prose. This article aims to throw light into the evolution and growth of Tamil Functional Grammar.

Keywords: Art Terms, Applied Tamil, Grammar Development, Linguistics, Genetics Grammar, Christian Missionary.

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4. குறுந்தொகை மருதத் திணைப் பாடல்களில் தலைவன் தலைவியின் பிரிவு

அ. அருண் பெஜோ & முனைவர் பா. ம. ஜெயகலா


Separation of the Chief and his Beloved as in Marutham Thinai Songs of Kurunthokai

A. Arun Bejo & Dr. P. M. Jayakala

Abstract

“Kurunthokai” was the most quoted book by reviewers among “Ettuttokai” books. Marutham thinai songs of this book portray the love and chaste life of the Chief (thalaivan) and his Beloved (Thalaivi). In Marutham thinai which has the basic subject as small clashes and its consequences there remains many reasons for chief and his beloved to have clash but the main reason behind it is because of the attraction of Chief on a concubine. Even though it is quite common among people lived during Sangam era, it gives high pain to the chief’s beloved. It’s surprising that the chief, who has unconditional love for his beloved, leaves her for a concubine. Even after knowing that chief went for her, sometimes the beloved won’t get angry on him. Even though it is evident that the beloved happily welcomes the chief who came back from a concubine, One can find the miscellaneous inner thoughts of chief and beloved while the chief leaves the beloved for an mistress, though the Marutham thinai songs of “Kurunthokai”. Hence, the article decodes the ample evidences from reliable sources to bring down the lustful acts of the chief on another woman and the pain of suffering in the beloved.

Keywords: Kurunthokai, Marutham Thinai, Chief, Beloved, Separation.

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5. நிழல் வாழ்க்கை நாவலில் பழையன தெளிதலும் புதியன புனைதலும்

முனைவர் சி. பு. இந்துஜா


Deciphering the Old and Creation of the New in the Novel Nizhal Valzhkai (Shadow Life)

Dr S. P. Induja

Abstract

“Nizhal Valzhkai” (Shadow Life) is a novel written by Anuradha Ramanan. In this novel, Maduram's character, the woman, faces many hardships due to her husband and intrusive family. The mother-in-law beats her many times and tortures her because she has given her so many things during the marriage. She remained silent with the intention of preserving the glory of the house where she was born. She decides that she can not live with the cruel intent to kill a life. She was rehabilitated by good souls like Doctor Raghavan and his son Gautham. Such creative people are like the panacea for the troubled people in the society. Even though Raghavan is the boss of Maduram's household, he was very concerned about eradicating her suffering. He presented the woman as a deity. Writers like Anuradha Ramanan portray stable solution for the troubled people in the society. Hence, this article focuses on the life of the woman who suffers to the utmost core of her life by the patriarchal society and patriarchy and the emergence of new woman in the novel“Nizhal Valzhkai”.

Keywords: New Woman, Old Tradition, New Tradition, Social Crisis, Women Status.

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6. சங்க இலக்கியம் - காதா சப்த சதியில் தலைவியின் பண்புகள்

ச. இளமாறன் & முனைவர் பெ. சுமதி


The Character of the Beloved (Thalaivi) in Sangam Literature and Katha Sapta Sathi

C. Elamaran & Dr. P. Sumathi

Abstract

The ancient Sangam literature is excellent evidence of the heritage and culture of the Tamil people. It is a significant aspect in Sangam literature that the people are not known by their original specific name but by their common name. The “Katha Saptha Sathi” which belongs to the times of Sangam literature is called the Agam literature of Andhra. It was written and compiled by king Sathavaagana. In “Kaadha Saptha Sathi”, one can see the tradition of calling or mentioning people by a common name. But there are no divisions like Thinai or Thurai which are found in Sangam literature. It means that one shall be designated with the human characters that the people have and the compositions of the (centrally placed) fivefold Akam love conduct found in Sangam Literature. But as the aspects like Oodal, forgiving the leader's misdoings, honouring the family life, the necessity of being virtuous, bottling up emotions and going along with each other are similar in both of the literature. Hence, the article does an extensive study and compare the similarity and dissimilarities among them.

Keywords: Hero, Heroine, Culture, Women Freedom, Sangam literature, Katha Saptha Sathi.

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7. வேள்பாரி நாவலில் இனக்குழு வாழ்வியல்

முனைவர் இரா. இளவரசு


Lifestyle of Ethnic Group in the Novel Velpari

Dr. R. Elavarasu

Abstract

The contemporary researches have the tradition that apply the components of Anthropology to Ancient Literature. The Novel “Velpari” shows the ethnic group’s lifestyle in front of our eyes. Among the various ethnic groups, the novel describes about the Velir group in a detailed manner. The basic attitude of the ethnic group is to stand with their own power and not depending on others with self sufficiency. The same lifestyle was followed by Pari (Pari Vallal) of the Parambu Hills. He has not declared him as a King. He lived with the common people and Panars (Artists of Music and Dance) and lead a simple lifestyle in a happiest way. The novel describes the story of Velpari who defeated the Three Kings (Chera, Chola, Pandia) who wish to destroy the Velir group using his courage and wisdom. The objective of this article reveals the formulation of ethnic groups, their independent nature and the self sufficient lifestyle and their cultural identities through the novel “Velpari”.

Keywords: Novel, VelPari, Velir Group, Ethnic Group Life Style.

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8. மலைபடுகடாம் வழி அன்றும் இன்றும் ஜவ்வாது மலை விலங்கினங்கள்

முனைவர் பொ. இரவீந்திரன்


The Ancient and Modern Fauna in Javadu Hills from Malaipadukadam

Dr. P. Ravindaran

Abstract

Javadu Hill is one of the famous hills in the Eastern Ghats. This hill is a part of the three districts of Vellore, Thiruvannamalai and Tirupati. There are various specialities to this hill. This mountain is called 'Nannan Sei Nannan Nadu'. It is said that the short-lived king Nannan ruled over the Javadu hills with his capital at Chenganma (Sengam). Sangam literature reveals the ancient traditional and traditional knowledge of the Tamils. Among them, “Malaipadukadam” is one of the famous works that come under the “Pathuppattu” (Ten Idylls). It is also called Kootharatruppadai. “Malaipadukadam” mentions various kinds of wildlife such as elephants, tigers, pigs, porcupines, deer, buffalo and monkeys lived in the Javadu hills. These faunas are the traditional animals found in the current times. It is also the need of the present times for an eco-friendly perspective to know about the existence and the extinction of the above-mentioned species. Hence, the purpose of this article is to explore the traditional fossils of animal life and to examine the life and environment of those animals today.

Keywords: Ancient and Modern, Fauna, Javadu Hills, Malaipadukadam.

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9. கலித்தொகை பாலைத்திணையில் அறம்

செ. ஓவியம் & முனைவர் கி. மைதிலி


Virtue in Palai Thinai from Kaliththokai

S. Oviyam & Dr. K. Mythili

Abstract

Without the knowledge of others, the lovers get out of their house in order to get united in married life is known as (eloping) ‘udanpokku’. Udanpokku made the lovers live life with chastity and such a kind of life has been accepted by all in the Tamil community later it was not accepted by their society insisting on chastity and changed the kind of udanpokku. Genorosity existed in society as part of life and later it got changed into charity. Literature reflects the changes that occurred in the lifestyle of the community where women who lived under men an oppressed. In those days, it was considered that the very soul of a male is the life of a female. A Male is considered the soul of a woman. For males, a woman is an object and it is said to be manliness. Many poems were sung projecting females as dependent on males and the reason behind this was a change in the Tamil society which was matriarchal during the ancient times has been changed into a patriarchal society. Hence, this article probes the importance of virtue in Palaithinai from “Kaliththokai”.

Keywords: Virtue, Palaiththinai, Kaliththokai.

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10. பாரதி - வால்ட் விட்மன் கவிதைகளில் பெண் காட்சிப் படிமம்

முனைவர் வீ. கவிதா


Visual Image of Woman in Bharathi - Walt Whitman’s Poems

Dr. V. Kavitha

Abstract

Bharathi (1882-1921) and Walt Whitman (1819-1892) are two great poets who emerged from almost the same social background. Walt Whitman, who introduced verse poetry to English, and Bharathi, who introduced it to the world of Tamil poetry, have many similarities in sentiments and trends of thought. Like Whitman's passion for Indian culture, poetry, and philosophy, Bharthi was fascinated by the high status of American women in American society, their artistry, and their freedom of the press. This can be seen from the article on the city by Bharathi. This article is adapted from Whitman's poem "The Great City". Commenting on this, Bharthi said about Whitman, ‘The European nation thinks of Walt Whitman as one of the magical Rishis for the principle of Republic and democracy. He is the leader of the poets who proclaimed the truth that all men, women and children are equal. Emphasizing the unity of society, both great men fought against the atrocities perpetrated against women and spoke out for women's rights. The purpose of this article is to explore what perspectives Walt Whitman and Bharathi had on creating visual images of women in their poetry.

Keywords: Bharathi, Walt Whitman, Feminism, Poetry, Visual Image.

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11. பெரியாழ்வார் பாசுரங்களில் ஸ்ரீ கிருஷ்ண அவதாரச் சிறப்பு

ஐ. கார்த்திக் & முனைவர் பா. ம. ஜெயகலா


Significance of the Incarnation of Sri Krishna in Periyalvar’s Pasurams

I. Karthick & Dr. P. M. Jayakala

Abstract

Saivite and Vaishnavite literatures highly dominated in the times of Bhakthi Movement. Vaishnavites, in worshipping Lord Vishnu, also chanted songs for Incarnations that are said to be the forms of Lord Vishnu, In this way Periyalvar also chanted songs for Lord Vishnu through his Pasurams (Hymns). Due to his love for Lord Krishna, he dedicated the holy hymns to celebrate the glory of Lord Krishna. He is one among the holy 12 Alvars, specially notified as periyalvar and also called ‘Srivilliputhur Pattar Piran’ and by birth “Visnu chittar”. He chanted numerous pasurams by assuming Lord Krishna as his child due to his devotion to Him. This shows his unconditional love and devotion to Lord Krisha. By thinking of him as the Mother of Lord Krishna, to honor his Son, he explains the honorific incarnations as ‘My God, My Son’ in many of his holy songs. By this way, this research article showcases the portrayal of Krishna devotion and the significance of Krishna Incarnation by Periyalvar in his Pasurams.

Keywords: Lord Vishnu, Incarnation, Lord Krishna, Pasurams, Alvars, Periyalvar.

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12. இலக்குவனின் இலட்சியம்

முனைவர் போ. கார்த்திகா


The Ambition of Lakshmana

Dr. B. Karthika

Abstract

Among the positive characters in the epic “Ramayana”, the character who is highly regarded next to Rama is Lakshmana. Lakshmana is the incarnation of Adishedan (the five headed Snake, a serpentine demigod, called as Nagaraja in Tamil), he did not take any principles for himself in the story of Ramayana, and spent his entire life by rendering the necessary assistance to Rama as a whole. Even, Lakshmana dared to oppose his father for Rama at the time of exile. When Rama started to go to forest, he left his wife and goes with Rama like a slave. The character of Lakshmana is an example for the love and respect he has on his brother. It is also possible to find a way to counsel and guide Rama where necessary. On the whole it is known that the character of Lakshmana is set in the shadow of Rama. The article delineates the ambition of Rama as evinced in the epic “Ramayana”

Keywords: The Ramayana, Lakshmana, Rama, Ambition, Courage, Purpose

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13. காலமும் கன்னித்தமிழும்

த. சங்கீதா & முனைவர் சு. மலர்விழி


Time and Virtuos Tamil

D. Sangeetha & Dr. S. Malarvizhi

Abstract

The literary wealth that Tamil Thai has received is innumerable. In ancient Tamilagam, glorifying the king's death, glorifying others and displaying the miracles of the Gods and the glories of incarnations, the Chera, Chola, and Pandyas were composed with exemplifying songs. The tamil Sangam patronized by the triumvirs (Moovendargal) developed Tamil and two thousand years ago they patronized the musical song “Paripadal”, expanding it into eight songs, ten songs, etc. The poets, who adorn Tamil as incomparable bells of light, add beauty to Tamil with their works and keep it immortal and musical. The ancient government, country, people, king, love and character can be found alive in the songs. The Vaigai river of Madurai (Vaiyai Arum) and Lord Muruga (Sevvelavan) were sung beautifully by the Tamil scholars. For the Tamil people who are striving for rejuvenation and new life, it would be better if Tamil itself is a valiant trigger. Tamil language flourished even before Agathiyar. Many poets like Nakkirar, Kanimethaviyar Nallanduvanar, Agathiyar, Tolkappiyar who sang Pannodu songs two thousand years ago, Sevvelavanodu Senthamumu and Kannakanar songs, the poets of this era Na.Ira. Through the songs of Chenniappanar and the Kandar songs of Ushlan Ilaveinar, Kunramboothanar, Nalvalutiyar, Kesavanar, among their works, they have sung the pride of Vaigai, its specialties and the glory of Tamil as the king's army. The condition of the people of that day can also be known through the poems. Even if many times pass by, it will always be Kannithamizh (Virtuos Tamil). We will worship Mother Tamilzh who knows Tamil Nalam and a Tamilian who speaks, writes and sings well in Tamil gives her supreme name so that Tamilzh Thai can be happy and aims to fullfill others hearts. The day is not far when Tamil glory will be praised in the world. Tamilzh Thai should join us and stand tall like a virtuos maiden forever.

Keywords: Tamil, Language, Music, Drama.

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14. இலக்கியங்களில் பாலினமும் பாலியலும்

முனைவர் இரா. சசிகலா


Gender and Sexuality in Literature

Dr. R. Sasikala

Abstract

It is said that literature is the universally admired truth. Tolkappiyar would have said the distinction between men and women in grammar and the moral principles that regulate our lives and the norms of life. The sexual abuse that happens in this society seems disgusting and shameful. Even if there were sexual messages in the literature, the punishment was also strong. A woman who commits sexual assault is motivated to kill. To eliminate sexual violence completely, there should be changes in the society, law, police and judiciary system and to bring about a mental change in the punishments should be given to them. Only then will this sexual violence be reduced. If less, the women will never go out and return home in peace. The government also accepts this and the men who realized their mistake also realized that the women's lives will have opportunities to come from darkness to light. This paper focuses on the gender and sex that has been found in Tamil literature that show the state of women in the hands of patriarchal hegemony.

Keywords: Literature, Gender, Sex, Life of Women

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15. பாவினங்களும் எண்வகைத் தொடைகளும்

இரா. சண்முகப்பிரியா & முனைவர் ப. வெங்கடேசன்


Kinds of PAA and Eight Kinds of Thodaigal

R. Shanmugapriya & Dr P. Venkatesan

Abstract

Of all the Languages in the world, Tamil Language is the ancient and first Language. Poem is the best genre to exhibit different texts and kinds of objects beautifully with poetic devices using few letters. Poem is easy to hearts and keep it in memory for a long time. So, poetry is greater than prose. It is classified in to four kinds such as Venba, Aasiriyappa, Kalippa and Vanchippa as per the style of sounds during the ancient times. After the Sangam times came Thaazhisai, Thurai and Viruthham type of Poems. In Tholkaapiyar times, Yappiyal poems were not denoted. It is said that the times of Silappathikaram was considered as the turning point. Elangovadigal introduced different and new types of ‘Yaapu’ Thaazhisai, Thurai, Viruthham with a tinge of new grammatical shades in ancient times. It could give whole hearted happiness to the listeners and readers with its sweet rhythmical sounds. The rules and regulations were defined giving priority to ‘Yaapillakkanam’ in the works. Prose writers indicated certain new ideas which was not pointed out by the Yaapilakkana writers. After Tholkappiyam, works such as “Kakkaipaadiniyam”, “Palkayam”, “Avinayam”, “Yaaparungalam”, “Yaapparungalakkarigai”, “Veerasozhiyam”, “Muthu veeriyam” which of all had described about Yaapilakkanam. It is quite natural that the old types of yaapu got changes and new types of yaapu has been created. Hence, the latter types of Yaapiyal works differ form Tholkaapiyar’s Yaapilakkanam in its form. This study focus on the later works of yaapiyal and types of ‘Paa”(Poem) and the changes that occurred in one of the parts of Poetry ‘Thodai’.

Keywords: Thaazhisai, Thurai, Viruthham, Monai, Ethugai.

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16. சிந்தைக்கினிய சிற்பக்கலையும் - பண்பாடும்

முனைவர் தி. சண்முகராஜா


Thoughtful Sculpture and Culture

Dr. T. Shamugaraja

Abstract

The art of sculpting is the most thought-provoking form of art that man has ever seen and done. After giving life to a stone by art and carving it into a sculpture, after opening its eyes, the sculpture holds all the historical data of the country such as culture, tradition, culture of the people of that country, race, language, religion, etc. and expresses them all to the world. The sculptures carved by the ancestors are vividly displayed in front of our eyes as a platform for the people of the world to learn about the culture of each country. The thoughtful sculpture is one of the best arts to know the innumerable historical messages of people's lifestyles, culture, business, sports, entertainment and concern for biodiversity. It is the art that not only we but also our descendants will know as long as this world exists about the art of sculpting. Even if all these sculptures are buried in the soil due to natural disasters and washed away by the ocean, if they have passed through the next generations without changing their condition, then only the role of sculpture is fulfilled. This article examines only a few sculptures and examines how Indian sculpture intertwines with people and people's lives and develops civilization and culture.

Keywords: Thought, Sculpting, Culture, Lifestyle.

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17. ஆண்டாள் திருப்பாவையில் ஆன்மீகம்

ஜெ. பா. சாம் செல்வகுமார் & முனைவர் எஸ். மணிமாறன்


Spirituality in Andal’s Thiruppavai

J. B. Sam Selvakumar & Dr S. Manimaran

Abstract

After the Sangam era, when our ancient religious norms and old cultural excellence were destroyed due to external invasions and external dominance, the sixty-three Nayanmars, the Saivite sages, and the Azhvars, who were deeply blessed by Tirumalinpal, increased the flood of devotion, swept Tamil Nadu, and blessed the whole of India and the whole world with hymns. Their vows and intentions were carried to every corner of India by devotees like Adisankar, Ramanusar, Kumaragurubar and others such as Tulsidasar, Kabirdasar, Jayadevar, Chaidanyar, Tukaram etc. appeared and spread the spiritual fragrance. Andal is also one of the benefactors who originated the Vaishnava devotional channel. Andal Nachiyar was the first woman who became the pioneer of Vaishnava spiritual literature to disprove the idea that women were not involved in spirituality. Andal belongs to Srivilliputhur, Tamil Nadu. She appeared as Periyazwar's adopted daughter. Vaishnavas say that she is an aspect of Bhudevi. Her period is said to be the eighth century AD. Andal has been very fond of Kannan since childhood. In Andal's youth, her religious consciousness shone brightly. Andal Nachiyar began to speak the words of infinite love and praise to God in her early childhood. Andal's hymns are “Tiruppavai” and “Nachiyar Tirumozhi”. Her hymns are referred to by Vaishnava commentators as “Pallamadai Vellam”. The expression of Andal's devotion to Kannan is found throughout “Tiruppavai” songs. In Aandal’s “Tirupavai”, besides mentioning the news like the month of Margazhi, the glory of the month of Margazhi, the benefits of fasting in the month of Margazhi, and the gathering and feasting, the Pasuram goes on to tell about all the glories of Tirumal's incarnation. It is a great pride for Tamil that Andal has sung “Tirupavai” and “Nachiyar Tirumozhi” in pure Tamil language because many vernacular words are mixed in the songs of other Azhwars. “Nachiyar Thirumozhi” is seen as an expression of Andal's love for Kannan. Andal sends auspicious objects like conch, chakram, quill, pitambaram, cloud etc. to reach Kannan as a messenger to convey her love. She gets complacent by ascribing her impotence to aphrodisiacs. This state of Andal is called Surrender Bhavam. About all the avatars, Andal has sung songs in a mesmerized manner. The songs sung in memory of Kannan are included in “Nachiyar Thirumozhi”. Andal's Pasuras are unique from other Alvars' Pasuras. Researchers also say Andal's Pasuram is feminine. This article highlights the spiritual excellence of “Tirupavai” sung by Andal. Andal's holy hymns and related articles have been taken for this study.

Keywords: Andal, Spiritual, Feminine, Pasuram.

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18. தொல்காப்பியரின் புலனறிவு உயிர்ப்பகுப்பும் சங்க அகத்திணைக்காதலும்

முனைவர் சு. சுசா


Tolkappiyar's Cognition, Categorization and Sangam Akathinai Love

Dr S. Susa

Abstract

Tolkappiyam is a book that tells not only about ezhuthu and sol but also about the porul of the subject in a way that is not found anywhere else in the world language grammar books. Ezhuthu and Sol stand for the grammar of a language whereas porul stands for the lifestyle of people who speak the language. The life of the ancient Tamil people was in harmony with nature. Their thoughts and actions were based on the secular perspective and ecology of the living. Ancient Tamil people have classified the world's biodiversity into two types namely, Uyarthinai and Ahrinai. Their nature was closely perceived and in terms of cognition, they were categorised into six types starting from organisms with one sense to six senses which is evident through the nurpas of Tolkappiyam. It is also astonishing that Tolkappiayam is a pioneer in the field of biological taxonomy, based on evolution, classification, and nomenclature as categorized by modern scientists. In most of the Sangam literary poems, we find the beetle using the flower as an implicit metaphor for the pleasurable life of thalaivan (Leader) and Thalaivi (lover). The beetle and the flower are both Ahrinai organisms. This poses the question as to why the beetle and the flower being Ahrinai organisms were treated as an implicit metaphor for the sublime pleasurable life of the intellectual Uyarthinai. Tolkappiyar’s cognition categorization answers it effectively. The flower is a one-sensed living plant, the beetle is a four sensed creature, it is a scientific fact that beetles feed on nectar and help in reproduction by pollination and foreign pollination. Only if the reproduction of this one sensed plant takes place, can the living beings belonging to the respective two senses, three senses, four senses, five senses, and six senses organisms can survive. The Sangam poets have used the ahrinai beings as an implicit metaphor for the love life of uyarthinai, on the lofty notion that the world's ecological biosphere should reach equilibrium and they did this to imprint such higher thoughts in people’s minds. This research paper seeks to capture global ecological thinking and to prove that Tolkappiyar’s cognition categorization is a precursor to all scientific thoughts today.

Keywords: Tolkappiyar, Cognition categorization, Sangam poets, Implicit metaphor, Ecology.

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19. சிலப்பதிகாரம் இரண்டாயிரமாண்டு காலப்புரிதலும் புதுமையாக்கலும்

முனைவர் கு. சுதாகர்


Two Thousand Year Understanding and the Neo Creation of Silappathikaram

Dr. K. Sudhakar

Abstract

“Silapathikaram” composed by Elangovadi, is a unique great work that speaks about the culture and history of the ancient Tamils. The epic has been presented in various forms from time to time, but the epic has been renewing itself for two thousand years. It can be known from the literature and the quotations of the interlocutors that Silapathikara Kapiyam has been spoken/sung by poets and scholars in every period. In this article, in order to express the reading of 'Silapathikaram' and the creative activity formed through it. The clarity of Silapathikaram which is a Palandamili literature gives the eagerness to read and the desire to create new literature. The glimpses of such new versions that belong to various ages are investigated in this article. By illustrating the changes that have occurred in 'Silapathikaram' and presenting it in different genres such as Kavya, Kuthupratri, Storytelling, Drama, Poetry, Fiction, etc. written in the later years, the excellence of 'Silapathikaram' can be known to the academia for future research.

.Keywords: Silappathikaram, Kannaki, Drama, Tamil Culture, Modern Poetry.

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20. குறுந்தொகை பாடல்கள் வழி மருதநில வாழ்வியல்

முனைவர் பெ. சுபா


The Life of Marutham People from the Kurunthokai Songs

Dr P. Suba

Abstract

Sangam literature has documented that there are five types of culture in the Tamil Land. They have named the highlands ‘Kurinchi’, the forests ‘Mullai’, the plains ‘Marutham’ and the seas as ‘Neithal’ and the desert area ‘Palai’. At first, the people were living a nomadic life in Kurinchi and Mullai. Later, they started to live in the field areas which led to the start of 'Kudi' life (a stable living place). After that, they started to fulfil their needs by forming groups. This is the start of the government (chief and later monarchy). Marutham land was the main reason for this many cultural changes. Therefore this article explains the lifestyle of Marutham Thinai and its culture. This article is set to record the lifestyle of the people of Maruthathinai. In “Kurunthogai” 401 songs have been sung by 203 poets. In this, 24 songs are sung only on Agam and 26 songs on both Agam (Love and chastity) and Puram (Valour and War) in ancient life. In total 50 songs have been sung on Marutham. Through these 50 songs, the lifestyle of the Marutham people is conveyed aesthetically. The field of the land, the cultivators, the trees, the flowers, the fruits, the chariot making, the animals, the muller and subsistence games, the reclamation of the land, the orchard, the cultivating industry, the cultivators living in poverty, the reference to the paddy and grain, the weeding and ploughing of the land, mallar, applying clay for the hair and the water bodies which shows us the wealth of Marutham land in the Tamil ancient society. Thus, this article is based on the fact that we can have a better understanding of the lifestyle of Marutham's livelihood.

Keywords: Life, Marutham Land, Kurunthokai, Songs.

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21. மேற்கு தொடர்ச்சி மலையில் பெருமாள் வழிபாடு

முனைவர் அ. செந்தில்குமார்


Worship of Perumal in the Western Ghats

Dr. A.Senthil Kumar

Abstract

Lord Perumal is the God of preserving in the Hindu Pantheon of Gods. People who belong to the Vaishnava Sect pray Lord Vishnu for the fulfilment of life. In Tamil Nadu, there are many dhivyadesas that glorify the feats and love of Lord Vishnu in many forms of Perumal. The worship of Lord Perumal in the Western Ghats continues for many years. This study is based on a perumal temple and its vicinities that is in Virudhunagar District, Tamil Nadu, India. The Perumal temple is known as Mottai Malai (cliff). It is in a place named Mavuthu on the Tankasi road near Alagapuri. This hill is situated on the western side of the famous Chaturagiri hill that is known for the Lord Shiva Temple on the Watrap Hills. The Perumal temple have ancient touch in its architecture and have orthodox worship events according to the Vaisnava sect. On this basis only men go to Perumal temple. This article is about the worship methods of this temple.

Keywords: Perumal Hill, Worship Group, Tribes, Western Ghats.

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22. குறுந்தொகையில் கூந்தல் வகைப்பாடு

நா. செல்வம் & முனைவர் வ. ரில்பர்ட் ஜெனார்த்தனன்


Cultural Significance of Tress (Hair) in Kurunthogai

N. Selvam & Dr V. Rilbert Janarthanan

Abstract

For Women in Tamil Culture, holy thread of marriage (Thali), Kum-kum (saffron smearing on the forehead), bangles and flowers are a symbol of pride, prosperity and auspiciousness. Long hair is also a symbol of auspiciousness and marital virtue for Tamil women. In Tamil culture, married women apply fragrant oil on their hair, clip flowers to their tress and use aromatic incences to dry their hair. All these things are done by married women only when then hsubands are alive and strictly avoided by the widows. Young women enjoy the bliss of fashion by making themselves beautiful with some natural cosmetics and they give more importance to their long hair. Thus, long hair of women has cultural significance in their life from birth to death. This article attempts to explore how different the usage of tress found in “Kurunthogai”.

Keywords: Cultural, Significance, Tress, Kurunthogai.

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23. பழமொழி நானூறு காட்டும் வேளாண்மை

முனைவர் வெ. டில்லிபாபு


Agriculture in Pazhamozhi Naanooru

Dr. V. Dillibabu

Abstract

The human race evolved from nomadic life to a settled one. They learned to produce grains according to the climate and natural environment of the land where he lives by gathering the various experiences they got in the Old Stone Age and the New Stone Age in their brain through the development of knowledge. In the initial period of settlement, the woman has to remain in one place for some time before and after giving birth, and it is the woman who discovers the germination capacity of the seed that she has thrown. Therefore, the production method starts with the woman first. This production method was first started by burying the seeds in the soil without ploughing. As a continuation of this experience, ploughing was carried out using bullocks. In the next step, they set up boundaries and converted them into small fields. The fields were ploughed with natural fertilizers. They also removed the weeds, watered them, harvested the crops after they had grown well and increased the production. Thus, the human race has been continuously trying different positions related to agriculture from the beginning of time till today. As a result of this effort, the man who invented the wooden plough to reduce the energy of human labour is now known to have developed the mechanical plough. In this way, the human race, which ploughed in two stages, namely hard field and soft field, has found various types of technical tools. To prove this, agriculture reached its greatest peak through the development of science in the following periods, beginning with the Paleolithic Age, travelling through the Neolithic Age, and settling in the Sangam and Sangam Maruviya Kalam. “Pazhamozhi Naanooru” explains the state of agriculture in ancient times and thereby one can know the pragmatic development of agriculture in Tamil Nadu. This article explores the transition of agriculture from the past to the new through the evidence from “Pazhamozhi Naanooru”.

Keywords: Agriculture, Pazhamozhi Naanooru.

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24. இலக்கியங்களில் கோள்களின் இயல்பு

முனைவர் மு. துர்காதேவி


Nature of Planets in Literature

Dr M. Durga Devi

Abstract

The study of space objects and matter outside the earth’s atmosphere is called astronomy. Ancestors of Tamil culture undoubtedly had spectacular knowledge about astronomy. It is evident in Tamil literature. The objects that could shine or glitter on their own are called stars and the objects which observe luminosity from the sun are called planets. The ancient Tamils had immense knowledge about the planets in outer space. They had calculated the solar and the lunar calendar system. They saw the planets with their eyes and recorded them. The minute details of time from a second to a light year were calculated astonishingly. Many astrological books were written by the Siddars of Tamil Nadu. In it, the nature of the planets and their influence upon the earth cum all other beings are explained intellectually. These truths can be seen in the sculptures of the Hindu temples. The navagraha in the Shiva temples are the best examples of the intellectual knowledge of our ancestors that has been found even before the scientific advancement and instruments. Hence, this article elicits about the nature of planets found in the literature.

.Keywords: Venus, Moon, Planets, Universal Knowledge, New Science.

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25. மீண்டும் தமிழ்ப் பேசுமா இடக்கை இசைக்கருவி

முனைவர் சு. நாகரத்தினம் & முனைவர் அ. ராவுத்தர் மீராராவுத்தர்


Will Idakkai Isaikaruvi (Aamanthirikai) Speak Tamil?

Dr. S. Nagarathinam & Dr. A. Ravuther Meera Ravuther

Abstract

Idakkai, an ancient Tamil music instrument and is mentioned as “Aamanthirikai” in Silappathikaram, one of the five great epics (perunkappiyams) from Sangam Literature. AdiyarkkuNallar, a commentator who has explained further and listed 32 music instruments including Idakkai. The Talking Drum of Tamils has now become endangered in usage and practice in Tamil Nadu. Central Institute of Classical Tamil (CICT), Govt. of India has sanctioned a project titled "‘Tamil Music Media Content: Mobile Application Product Development Research" to the Department of Communication and the first author as its Principal Investigator to find the musical instruments that were used in the past and which of them are still in vogue. 12 Silappathikaram songs were selected for creating Songs with Pans and Instruments present in the ancient times of the Silappathikaram age. In this study, the paper explores the possibility of using Idakkai as an instrument for songs and also tested the ability of talking Tamil when beating the Idakkai instrument. The musical instruments usage and the results of the research will be cited in the Mobile Application developed through the project.

Keywords: Ancient Tamil, Music Instruments, Idakkai, Silappathikaram Songs.

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26. புறப்பொருள் வழி ஐயன் ஆரிதன் உணர்த்தும் மற மாண்பும் இன்றைய இந்திய இராணுவத்தின் நிலைப்பாடும்

முனைவர் நே. நிஷாநேவிஸ்


Puram Ideology of Iyyan Aarithan on Warrior’s Ethics and the Stance of Indian Army

Dr N. NishaNavis

Abstract

“Purapporul Venbamalai” speaks about warfare, methods of warfare, reasons for war, pre-war status, the ethics to be followed in the war, the qualities of the warrior, the valour of the warrior clan women, weapons, epidemic, the chivalric attitude of the king are detailed with connection to the life of the people of the times by Iyyan Aarithan. It is slightly varied from the concept of Tholkappiyar from his Puram concepts. The war was conducted by having certain social ethics. The war ethics followed the principles to spare the running away enemy, the enemy who lost his weapons, and who accepts his defeat by kneeling to the victor. The Tamils' idea of war was not to eliminate such defeated soldiers or kings. The Sangam kings adhered to such ethical norms that were to be followed before and after the war. Such principles are still followed in India. Hence, the article elicits the strength of the Indian Army and the stance of the Indian soldiers in the chosen perspective.

Keywords: Puram Ideology, Iyyan Aarithan, Warrior’s Ethics, Indian Army.

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27. விவசாயம் சார்ந்த புழங்குப்பொருட்கள்

நா. பத்மஸ்ரீ & முனைவர் பா. ம. ஜெயகலா


The Instruments of Agriculture

N. Padmasree & Dr P. M. Jayakala

Abstract

Human society must adapt to the circumstances and times in which it lives. Community adoption has developed many approaches to designing the natural world according to one’s purpose. The development of civilization is increasing day by day. Natural resources are constantly evolving into cultural and artistic works. ‘Kathir arival’ (sickle) is a tool used to cut crops with the help of a hand before the advent of machines. The 'kuthil' (Coconut leaves Tent) was used to store the paddy for the next seed; the 'kizhar' was used to pump water from the pond. They use a tool called a ‘mugavai’ to pump water by hand with the help of a long rope from deep wells. News about the uses of agricultural commodities and their uses, such as the interest in the harvest, and the small bamboo basket used for sowing, other minor instruments that are used widely are seen in the Tamil literary sources. They are scientific and interesting to know about the use of agricultural instruments. So, this article is aimed at revealing how ancient agricultural instruments were used in agriculture and their importance to the Tamil academia and the others who are interested in the methods.

Keywords: Instruments, Agriculture.

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28. உடன்போக்குச் சூழலில் கண்டோர் கூற்று

முனைவர் பொ. பார்த்தீபன்


The Talks of the People at the Situation of Elopement

Dr. P. Partheeban

Abstract

This article gives a vivid picturisation of the common folk who happen to see the eloped lovers on their way and the contempt of the kinsmen and other people for them considering their future. While others express their concern for them, some people speak of the negative consequences following their elopement in the dark, into the jungle and to a remote place where no fortune is found earlier. The verses in Sangam Literature and the grammatical text “Tholkappiyam” speaks of the situation where people speak after the elopement of the hero (Thalaivan) and the heroine (Thalaivi). These ancient treasures of Tamil culture spot how the mother and relatives had an interaction with the people who witnessed it on the way about the lovers. The talk also portrays the statement of the viewers. Hence, this article is based on the objectives, of whether the conversation of the viewers abides by the rules of Tholkappiyam or Sangam Literature? and at what level the witnessed people accept the action of the lovers or thought to have violated the rules.

Keywords: Sangam Literature, Tholkappiyam, Elopement, Viewers.

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29. அகநானூறு கூறும் சங்ககாலக் கள்வர்களின் வாழ்வியல்

த. பி. பிரபின் ஜோஸ் & முனைவர் க. கோ. அனிதாகுமாரி


Livelihood of the Outlaws in Agananooru during the Sangam Period

T. F. Prabin Jose & Dr K. G. Anitha Kumari

Abstract

Agananooru has 400 songs, out of this, 200 songs refer to Paalai Thinai. Paalai Thinai (Desert area) songs mention the dry areas of Tamil Nadu. Earlier in the land system of the Sangam period, there was no separate land Paalai. There was only Kurinji land with its mountainous landscape and Mullai land with its forest areas, Paalai evolved as a result of lack of rain and excess heat. But it is believed, that when the land receives a sufficient amount of rainfall, it becomes fertile and transforms into either Kurinji or Mullai landscape. The desert land serves as a source of extreme misery because of rainlessness and red-hot sun. Due to the scorching sun, the mountain spring dried up. The pointed sharp rocks found in the mountains were heated up owing to the hot sun and it pierced the feet of the passersby now and then. Bamboos often rub against one another and this in turn creates friction, which results in fire. The Paalai land was unsustainable because the vegetation was prone to die at the clutches of the harsh sun. The land becomes infertile because of the scorching sun and lack of rain, hence is identified as Paalai. In this infertile dry land, theft becomes dominant. Poverty was a common cause for theft becoming dominant among the people residing in the Paalai landscape. Poverty strikes because the people are not able to use the land for agricultural purposes due to insufficient water. This leads to food scarcity. To satisfy their hunger the people of Paalai got themselves into thievery. They often stole herds of goats and fed on them. Also, they did get themselves into robbing and attacking passersby people and merchants and plundering their possessions. Particularly, these people attacked the salt merchants who passed by for trading salt and robbed their wealth. All such information could be understood while reading “Agananooru”. Bearing all this information this research paper brings forth a cumulative understanding of the livelihood of bandits in the Sangam period.

Keywords: Agananooru, Sangam Period Outlaws, Livelihood, Paalai Land, Dacoity.

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30. சங்க இலக்கியத்தில்அறவியல் நோக்கு

முனைவர் ந. புனிதலெட்சுமி


An Ethical Perspective of Sangam Literature

Dr. N. Punithalakshmi

Abstract

Sangam songs mostly used the theme of law, justice and honesty of the people of the Sangam era. The Sangam literature mentions the three values - virtues (Aram), wealth (Porul) and love (Inbam). Love is elaborately written in Aga Thinai poems and the other two in Pura Thinai poems. Virtues are often spoken in the poems that the bridesmaid (Thozhi) sings, as it is her great responsibility to insist on the marriage to the headman during the period of pre-marital love (Kalavu) life of bride (Thalaivi), it is also her duty to console her friend (thazhaivi) who is grieving over the separation during her chastity (Karpu). The meaning of the word virtue has changed over time. Sangam poets have used it in the sense of honesty, truth, and impartiality. At the end of the Sangam, the word Aram came to mean dharma. In Aga Thinai poems, Thozhi exhorts the headman, who postpones marriage and finds pleasure in copulation, to get married by extolling the excellence of virtue. Both the Thazhaivi and Thozhi talk about virtue in the songs of chastity. Moral concepts are also found in the Pura Thinai songs. Virtuous messages are found in poems praising tributaries to kings, biographies of poets, hymns of vow and sometimes in portraying nature. If the morals found in the Sangam literature are compiled and given in a form of a book, it will be the greatest treasure of life ethics to the universe. Hence, this paper scrolls down through the ample evidence from Sangam literature.

Keywords: Sangam Literature, Aga & Pura Thinai Poems, Thazhaivi, Thozhi, Ethical Perspective.

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31. அகநானூற்றில் நெய்தல் சமூக வாழ்வியலும் தொழில்சார் நுட்பங்களும்

முனைவர் ஜோ. பென்னி


Lifestyle and Occupational Techniques of Neithal Community in Aganaanooru

Dr J. Benny

Abstract

The ancient Tamils divided the land into five types. People traded there based on the nature of the land. They migrated from Kurinji land to various lands like Mullai, Marudham and Neithal. The Neithal people lived in towns and villages. They built houses with dry grass and palm leaves. Fish, dry fish, rice, etc. are their daily diet. The woman was seen adorned with flowers. Neithal men and women were equally valued in ancient society. It was customary for the groom to give a dowry to the bride's house for the wedding. If the dowry could not be paid they worked as slaves in the bride's house and got married. The people of the Neithal land were accustomed to feasting and breeding. In the Paratavar community, women were involved in the business on an equal footing with men. These people were very pious. They made fishing their main occupation and built boats and nets with good technology. They drown in the sea and took the conch and the pearl for business. Salt production is another of their primary occupations. Hence, this article focuses to bring down the life and professional techniques of the Neithal people as seen in ‘Agananooru’.

Keywords: Aganaanooru, Neithal, Life, Hospitality, Occupational techniques.

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32. வில்லிபாரதப் பெண்மாந்தர்களின் குணநலன்கள்

முனைவர் த.மகேஸ்வரி


Characteristic Traits of the Women Characters from Villibharatham

Dr. D. Maheswari

Abstract

Epic is a guide to human life. Although there are many Mahabharata books, Villibharatam is the first book in Tamil literature that extols the glory of Bharat. Also, the story of Villibharat, which depicts the destruction of the Kauravas and the rise of Dharma to Draupadi, is admirable. The tendency to examine a person's character through traits is an ancient trait. The character of the women of Villibharata is determined by how they act in respect of their elders, in the duties they perform, as excellent chaste women, in the royal environment, and in the state of salvation at the end of life. The purpose of this research paper is to study the nature of the activities performed by the women of Villibharata from birth to death.

Keywords: Epic, Villibharatham, Women Characters, Characteristic Traits.

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33. உசிலம்பட்டி வட்டார மக்களின் சடங்கு முறைகளில் மரபும் புதுமையும்

தே. மகேஸ்வரி & முனைவர் பெ. சுமதி


Tradition and Innovation of Rituals among the People of Usilampatti

T. Maheswari & Dr. P. Sumathi

Abstract

Tamil society is an assortment of various ethnic groups. A great amount of emphasis has been given to the formation of marital ties within relationships in the ethnic life of certain people living in and around the Usilampatti area. Marriages often take place based on endogamy and exogamy. Getting married within a relationship is called endogamy. Exogamy occurs when a woman is absent in relations or some family member refuses to accept to marry their daughter. There are certain rituals followed similarly among the people of this area. They are rendered down to their successors by tradition and heritage. Rituals show them lucid through the festivals and ceremonies. Though, there are some changes in the ritual traditions that are even structured in the social system and are practised in today’s environment. In that sense, this article provides an open scope to explore the tradition and innovation in rituals practised by the Usilampatti people.

Keywords: Tradition, Innovation, Rituals, People, Usilampatti.

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34. தமிழ் நவீனக் கவிதைகளில் காணப்படும் பின் நவீனச் சமூகம்

செ. மார்ட்டின் ராஜா & முனைவர் மு. இராஜசேகரன்


Post-Modern Society as Seen in Modern Tamil Poetry

S. Martin Raja & Dr. M. Rajasekaran

Abstract

A man living in today's social, economic and cultural environment is living a conflicted life from the traditional social structures and the development of modern science and technology. Every individual tries to find a way out of society and the social structure by raising logical and illogical arguments. Ultimately, there is a tendency in society for each individual to compromise himself. Thus the condition of mankind in which there is nothing to cling to can then be defined as a modern society. The individual is forced to live between tension and confusion. Attracted by the global market goods, the consumer's mentality manifests itself in buying more goods than they need. Also, it can be seen that consumers are living unhappily with the purchased products. As an example, the use of smooth stones in residential areas to treat arthritis in old age is a profitable strategy for capitalists to use acupuncture on footstools. With the use of social media such as mobile phones, social media, Facebook, and the Internet, there is a tendency to live by accepting duplicate facts as truth. Imperialist countries are also seen in society to destroy cultures to profit from the market economy. Globalization has led to capital exploitation based on culture. As a result, migration to foreign countries and return to native countries for education, medicine, engineering, employment, marriage, etc. have led to the formation of a cross-cultural society. Conflicts and problems are very common between the two types of society i.e. core society x marginal society. This article aims to explore the need to protect the identities and rights of marginalized people in mainstream society. Moreover, the poems of Tamil modern poets Sivagami, Liby Aranya, M.D. Muthukumarasamy, Rajasekaran, and Ramesh Prethan are taken and the definitions for modern society are explained in this article.

.Keywords: Postmodern Society, Modern, Tamil Poetry.

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35. சங்க இலக்கியத்தில் அறக்கருத்துகள்

முனைவர் க.வாணிஜோதி


Thoughts of Virtue in Sangam Literature

Dr. G. Vani Jothi

Abstract

The ancient Tamils wanted virtue to flourish in their society. They considered virtue as the highest one in life. The Brahmins (Andanars) lived in praise of charity. The kings ruled with sceptre and protected virtue. Women regarded chastity as a virtue and praised it. Sangam literature extols the glory of chastity. Women believed that they too had a duty to protect virtue. They gave priority to knowledge over valour. Sangam literature considers virtue to be the first among virtue, materiality and pleasure. They have lived a good life by following the ideas given by the scriptures. They lived a life that by assuming that there is a connection between virtue and rain. Many of the Sangam poems respected other life as well as their own life and emphasized the position of seeking material things for the sake of virtue. When these virtues are not properly observed, literature becomes a mature way to carry them. This allows realizing endless meaning through the ancient style of life with moral ethics. Virtue events are observed from time to time and one can see through Sangam literature that Virtue has been praised in all words and deeds. Looking at the Sangam period from today's point of view, there has been a portrayal of excellent moral life in Sangam literature which was cultivated at various levels. Such instances are discussed in this article.

Keywords: Thoughts, Virtue, Sangam Literature, Happiness.

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36. தோப்பில் முஹம்மது மீரான் படைப்புகளில் பெண்களின் நிலை

து. மர்பி முனைவர் பி. இளங்கோ


The State of Women in the Works of Thoppil Mohammed Meeran

T. Murphy Dr. P. Elango

Abstract

The scientific study of the human mind and behaviour is called psychology. Literary writings created with cognitive understanding act as a source of emotions for the exploration of the human mind and actions. The works of Thoppil Mohammed Meeran have a huge scope for studying the psychology of women at different levels. Women’s psychological expressions differ in various contexts. Anyhow, it shows the pathetic state of women under distress in the patriarchal society. When a woman tries to become an individual, she has been stuck by the grid of atrocity. It makes her too psychologically affected. Even though there are many emancipators from diverse areas to give their hands to women to rise, they are pushed down continuously. Their life seems like a maze and lets them only live in chaos. There is no remedy for it. Mohammed Meeran has a deep care for such women and has portrayed the sluggish life led by the women under the patriarchal society in his novels. Hence, this article aims to explore the psychological state of women in the select works of Mohammed Meeran.

Keywords: Women, State, Works, Thoppil Mohammed Meeran.

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37. திருத்துறைப்பூண்டி வட்டார வாழ்வியலும் வழக்குச் சொல்லாக்கமும்

து.வைரமணி


A Study on the Regional Livelihood and the Vernacular Language of Thiruthuraipoondi

D. Vairamani

Abstract

As long as world history is concerned, the first thing that comes to mind when we think of a town is the vernacular language of the place and the influence of culture over it. Moreover, the historical sites and natural resources located in the area, as well as the lucrative tourist sites, which give revenue, are also equally important. This article deciphers the history and jurisprudence of the place Thiruthuraipoondi, which is located in the Thiruvarur district. This article is prepared primarily based on interview and questionnaire methods through direct field research. It is discussed in detail how the vernacular language is blended with their culture and livelihood. The land area is divided by the land classification of the Tholkappiyan, with field (Marutham) and field marshy landscapes, sea (Neithal) and marine landscapes, and forested (Mullai) landscapes and associated ecosystems. Despite the lack of major Industrial development, education in the area has been improved by 80%. Notably, many esteemed institutions help by providing funds for the improvement. Agriculture, fishing, horticulture and cottage industries are the main sources of livelihood here. But still, no industrial development has been created in the area. Hindu, Islam and Christian people and other religious people are living with social cohesion and adoptive natures. To this day, the sons of the soil still hold high 90% of the vernacular language in use as well as the Tamil language. Significantly, there are many tourist sites like Alayathi forest, Lagoon (small island), Udhayamathandam Bird sanctuary, and the Second Paddy Procurement Station of Tamil Nadu. Kovilur is also an important historical site. It is noteworthy that Tiruthuraipoondi once was a part of the lower Tanjore and added to the pride of harvesting the granary. And the researcher believes that one can learn the importance of the vernacular language and the historical significance of the places in Tamil Nadu through this kind of article.

Keywords: Study, Regional Livelihood, Vernacular Language, Thiruthuraipoondi.

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38. சங்க அக இலக்கியங்களில் பண்பாட்டு மரபுகள்

வா. வினுப்பிரபா & முனைவர் சு.அழகர்நாதன்


Cultural Significance of Tress (Hair) in Kurunthogai

V. Vinuprabha & Dr. S. Alagarnathan

Abstract

The Sangam literature is considered to be the best way to make the Tamil language and culture known to the world. They are a great treasure of the cultured life of the ancient Tamil people who lived in harmony with nature. This article describes the cultures found in the Agam (life of love) literature that highlight the unique lifestyle of people living according to the land structure, living environment, etc. The people of the Sangam period lived with certain morals and cultural practices that shape up their society into a cultured one. Such evidences show that Tamil people lived a decent life with heritage. Still it has been followed by the people of this age. Agam indicated the internal passion of an individual, particularly about love. On those days, life is considered to be a boon and the life of love with morals is considered more than life. Thare are lots of evidences found in Sangam literature. Hence, this research paper unfolds that the cultural life of the Tamil people are characterized by life oriented ethics.

Keywords: Karanam, Silambu Kachinonbu, Kuppayam, Katchu.

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39. திருக்குறளை முன்வைத்து களவொழுக்கத்தில் தலைவியின் இயல்புகள்

சு. லி. ஜினி மேபல் & முனைவர் ரோ. க. கேதறின் பிறீடா


Nature of the Lady Love in Pre-marital Love with Reference to Thirukkural

S. L. Jini Mabel & Dr. R. K. Catherin Freeda

Abstract

In Sangam Era, Pre-marital love is common among teenage men and women. It is not just an infatuation before marriage but is maintained secretly without the knowledge of parents. They keep it a secret and live a life of a husband and wife in a soulful manner. Such a sort of love is called ‘Kalavuk Kadal’ in the Tamil culture. They will make their life to come true by getting acceptance from their parents (Karpuk Kadal). Love is inevitably born when a teenage lad and lass met together. The Tamil living system was based on the type of land. So, love may be possible from the same kind of place. For example, Kurunji, Mullai, Marutham, Neithal, and Palai. Or else, they may belong to different landscapes. According to the belief of the ancient Sangam Tamil people, they are destined to meet and fall in love to celebrate their love and life with mutual understanding. This article is an elaborate description of pre-marital love and focuses to explore how the nature of a lady love (Thalaivi) who indulges in pre-marital love concerning the world famous Tamil work ‘Thirukkural’.

Keywords: Nature, Lady Love, Pre-marital Love, Thirukkural.

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40. தொல்காப்பியப் பொருளதிகாரம் சுட்டும் வாழ்வியல்

முனைவர் பா. ம. ஜெயகலா


Life as Evinced in the Chapter Porulatikaram of Tholkappiyam

Dr. P. M. Jayakala

Abstract

‘Tholkappiyam’ is one of the oldest grammar books available in the Tamil Language. This book serves as a time mirror and an encyclopaedia that explains the history, culture and civilization of the ancient Tamils. Tamil life was divided into two types. They are internal (Agam) and external (Puram) parts of life. ‘Tholkappiyam’ suggests both types of a life lived by the ancient Sangam people. In the Agam way of life, the love between the leader (Thalaivan) and the beloved (Thalaivi) becomes the gateway to married life. Until the acceptance of the parents, the love life of the love pair goes on secretly. When the leader has the will to marry the beloved and compromises the parents of the beloved, and when the one who has the right (parents) of giving the bride to the leader, the life of chastity begins (Karpuk Kadal). The marriage is also fixed. The marriage took place without the acceptance of the parents. It is called elopement (Udanpokku). In Tholkappiyam, certain evidence proves the life of the lover and beloved in a descriptive manner. Hence, the article finds a clear-cut way to know the life of the Sangam people in both stages such as hidden love (Kalavu Kadal) and chastity (Karpuk Kadal) in the Tholkappiyam perspective.

Keywords: Tholkappiyam, Life, Hidden Love (Kalavu), (Karpu, Tirumanam, Matalerutal.

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41. சு. தமிழ்ச்செல்வி படைப்புகளில் உவமைகள்

தா. ஜெயஷீலா & முனைவர் தே. பேனினா


Similes in the Novels of S.Tamil Selvi

D. Jeya Sheela Dr. D. Benina

Abstract

In Tamil Literature, Sangam literary writers have used similes to strengthen the poetic themes and concepts. Contemporary Tamil writers also generate similes using nature in their works to illustrate the aesthetic sense of romanticism as the ancient Tamil poets did. The ancients had used only nature-related similes to portray their aesthetic quality but the current writers have used similes beyond nature and have been choosing similes from all fields of knowledge. Tamil novels are interesting and many writers have been using similes to weave the interest of the novel. One such eminent novelist is S. Tamil Selvi. Her novels have been influenced by similes. The novelist has brought in similes for her novels from all kinds of Gods, water, various types of landscapes, fine, sky, flora, fauna, instruments, characters and so on. Hence, this article ventures to identify and analyse the use of similes in the novels of S.Tamil Selvi.

Keywords: Similes, Novels, S.Tamil Selvi.

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42. பண்டைத் தமிழரின் சமய மரபு

முனைவர் அ. ஜெயபால்


Religious Tradition of Ancient Tamil Society

Dr. A. Jayabal

Abstract

Among the languages of the world, Tamil is considered to be an archaic language in many aspects such as literature, art, culture, politics and trade. The way of life of Tamils provides research fields for carrying out various studies. Thus, it becomes necessary to know what kind of worship or religious tradition was followed by the ancient Tamils. Each of the institutionalized religions tries to establish its religion as the Tamil religion. In the Tamil context, we know that the non-Vedic religions like Jainism, and Buddhism and Vedic religions like Saivism and Vaishnavism have influenced literature, grammar, inscriptions, copper plates, tombstones, historical records etc. Sangam literary texts play a major role in identifying the cultural status of Tamils. Usually, the researchers decide the conclusion of the study by referring to the association of literature. Anthropologists, ethnographers, folklorists, sociologists, etc. use various data that reveal the life of the ancient Tamils and show that the worship of Tamils is not institutionalized by religious methods and is independent always. In this case, the article sets out to find out what religious tradition was practised in the ancient Tamil community.

Keywords: Religious, Tradition, Sangam literature, Ancient Tamil Society.

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43. மு. மேத்தா கவிதைகளில் பெண்ணியம்

கு. ஜெலின் சுஜி & முனைவர் த. மகிலா ஜெனி


Feminism in the Poems of Mu. Metha

K. Jelin Suji & Dr. D. Mahila Jeni

Abstract

In this article, the researcher describes the concepts of feminism found in the poems of Mu. Metha. Women are to be admired and respected but the world of men discourages women in all aspects and suppresses them for their aims and goals. Women should be protected as the eyes of the country. Women are worshipped as goddesses in India. in Tamil society, women were given high status and respected for their wit but after the implementation of patriarchy, women were treated as slaves. To empower society, Women should live in good relations at home and in the country. As a beloved, a good wife to the husband, the pinnacle of motherhood, a mother–in–law, and she evolves many roles and relationships in Tamil families. In reality, women are subordinate to men in family responsibilities and workplaces. Hence, feminist thought originated to change this situation for women. Many male writers became the champion of women’s rights and in that line Mu. Metha is a pioneer in Tamil poetic order. His poems deal with feminist themes so this article describes the problems faced by women who strive to forge new paths in the poems of Mu. Metha.

Keywords: Mu.Metha, Poems, Feminism.

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44. கவிஞர் ஞானனின் பக்தி கவிதைகளில் புதுமைப்போக்கு

சூ. ஜோஸ்பின் மாலதி


Innovation in the Devotional Poems of the Poet Gnanan

S. Josephine Malathi

Abstract

This article sets out to highlight the new trend in the works of the poet Gnanan, who has written contemporary literary genres such as poetry, essay, short story, novel, other historic writing and drama. This article also reveals the power of the devotional songs composed by the poet Gnanan. Gnanan has written many devotional poems and hymns, especially his ‘Thillai Nadarasa Peruman’and ‘Sivagami Annai’ ar par excellent works in Tamil devotional literature. The above chosen devotional treatises are delineated about the things that could be subdivided into descriptions that simplify old myths, reference of Palanthamil grammatical old myths, reference of Palanthamil grammatical genres, usage of simple rhetoric, usage of Palanthamil literary epic and self-narrative. Hence, this article deciphers the employment of innovative techniques in the works Gnanan.

Keywords: Innovation, Devotional Poems, Poet Gnanan.

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45. காலந்தோறும் வினையிலக்கணம்

முனைவர் அ. ஹெப்சி ரோஸ் மேரி


Tense at all Times

Dr. A. Hepsy Rose Mary

Abstract

Grammar in the Tamil Language had emerged from the way of life and its application of it to life seems perfect with the higher value the ancient Tamil scholars gave to it. The Tamil grammar texts that emerged in each era followed the grammar treatises that came before it and incorporated the changes that occurred in the language over time. In this way, this article tends to highlight the changes that have occurred in the past time to the present times. “Veerachozhiyam” is one of the books worth mentioning in highlighting the tradition of ‘Vinai Ilakkanam’ from time to time. It adapted the ideas of Tholkappiyar and set up a grammar that adopted many new ideas according to the situation. Hence, this article examines the verb structure and the changes in the interpretation of the verb, classification of the verb and tenses in a detailed way.

Keywords: Karakam, Prakrit, Thathu, Vinaithiripu, Pirathiyam, Sakarumakam, Akarumagam.

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46. A Comparative Study of Psychodynamics of Archetypes in the Select Writings of Nigel Tranter and Kalki R. Krishnamurthy

Dr. M. Vinoth Kumar


Abstract

The intention of the research paper has been an inspiration through the overture of the needed research in comparative studies in British and Tamil Literature which leads to the general argument of the study. The proposition of the study is shaped by the fictional works of the two chosen writers from two diverse nations of the orb. The study aims to formulate a profound study of tracing the psychodynamics of archetypes in the chosen historical novels. In adding together, the research investigates the psychodynamic elements in the select writings of the opted English and Tamil writers and provides how the psychodynamics of archetypes paves the way in the journey of the heroes, heroines and other characters that are on the pursuit to fulfil their tasks. Archetypes play a vital role in setting the mind and controlling the conscious mind through the unconscious and collective unconscious motifs. The journey of an individual undergoes different levels of psychodynamic changes in the process of the self. Hence, the dynamics of the psyche that are relevant to the archetypes are taken into consideration and a parallel comparative study has been focused with ample reference to the select characters of Nigel Tranter and Kalki to bring out the working dynamics of the mind. Hence, the article deciphers the nature of Personality, Excellence, Human Growth, Harmony, Individual Morality, Interpersonal narure and Happiness in the characters with the aid of archetypes.

Keywords: Comparative Study, Psychodynamics, Archetypes, Novels, Characters, Nigel Tranter, Kalki R Krishnamoorthy.

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