தொகுதி - 5, சிறப்பிதழ் - 2, ஜீன் 2023
Volume - 5 Special Issue - 2, June 2023
Articles 01- 32
தமிழ்மொழி மற்றும் இலக்கியத்திற்காக எமது தமிழ்மொழி மற்றும் இலக்கிய பன்னாட்டு ஆய்விதழ் (Ijtlls) தம் இலக்கிய மற்றும் ஆராய்ச்சி அரும்பணியைச் செம்மையாகச் செய்து வருகின்றது. யு.ஜி.சி. கேர் (UGC CARE), எம்.எல்.ஏ (MLA) மற்றும் டி.ஓ.ஏ.ஜே (DOAJ) போன்ற ஆய்வுத் தளங்களில் மதிப்பீடு செய்யப்பட்ட எமது ஆய்விதழில் கௌரவ சிறப்பிதழ் ஆசிரியர்களாகப் பணியாற்றிட தன்னார்வம் கொண்ட பேராசிரியர்களுக்கு வாய்ப்பளிக்கப்பட்டுள்ளது. மேலும், இச்சிறப்பிதழில் பெருமைமிகு பல்கலைக்கழகங்கள், கல்லூரிகள் மற்றும் ஆய்விதழ்களில் இருந்து பங்கு கொண்ட பேராசிரியர்கள் சிறந்த கட்டுரைகளை வழங்கியமைக்கு நன்றியைத் தெரிவித்துக் கொள்கிறேன். தமிழர்கள் பெரும்பாலும் வாழ்க்கையின் ஒழுக்கம் மற்றும் நெறிமுறைகளில் கவனம் செலுத்தி வருபவர்கள். குடும்பம், சமூகம் மற்றும் கலாச்சாரத்திற்கு அதிக முக்கியத்துவம் கொடுப்பவர்கள். செம்மொழிப் படைப்புகளின் கோட்பாடுகளின் அடிப்படையில் விமர்சனக் கட்டுரைகள் தமிழில் பெருமளவில் பகுப்பாய்வு செய்யப்படுகின்றன. ஆனால் அந்த படைப்புகள் மேற்கத்திய கண்ணோட்டத்தில் பெருமளவில் ஆராயப்படவில்லை. மேற்கு மற்றும் ஆசிய நாடுகள் தமிழ்மொழி மற்றும் இலக்கியத்தில் உள்ள அறிவை அறிய தமிழ்த்துறைகளையும் மற்றும் அமர்வுளையும் உருவாக்கி படிக்கின்றனர். எனவே, தமிழ் இலக்கியமும் மேற்கத்திய திறனாய்வுக் கோட்பாடுகளும் எனும் தலைப்பிலான கருத்தரங்கம் பாண்டியன் கல்வி அறக்கட்டளையின் சார்பாக இரண்டாம் பத்து நாள் சர்வதேச இணையவழி கருத்தரங்கமாக தமிழ்நாட்டில் முன்னெடுக்கப்பட்டது. இதுபோன்ற ஒரு கருத்தரங்கத்தினை இன்று ஏற்பாடு செய்வது அவசியம் ஆகின்றது. இவ்வகையான பல பரிமாணம் கொண்ட ஆராய்ச்சிகள் தமிழ் ஆராய்ச்சி மற்றும் உயர் கல்வித்துறையை மேம்படுத்தும்; தமிழ் படைப்புகளை மேற்கத்தியர்களும் புரிந்து கொள்ள வழிவகுக்கும். தலைசிறந்த பல்கலைக்கழகங்கள், கல்லூரிகள் மற்றும் ஆய்விதழ்களில் தமிழ்மொழி மற்றும் இலக்கியம் சிறக்கப் பணியாற்றக்கூடிய பேராசிரியர்களின் சிந்தனைகளின் வழி பெற்ற தரமான 32 ஆய்வுக்கட்டுரைகளைத் தொகுத்து ஆய்வு நெறிமுறைகளின்படி தணிக்கைச் செய்யப்பட்டு, மதிப்புரை வழங்கி, செம்மைப்படுத்தி இணையத்தில் எமது ஆய்விதழ் வாயிலாகச் சிறப்பிதழாகப் பதிப்பித்தமைக்கு அகமகிழ்வடைகிறேன். ஆய்வுக்கட்டுரைகள் வழங்கி சிறப்பித்தத் தமிழ்ப்பேராசிரியர்கள், எழுத்தாளர்கள், தமிழ் ஆர்வலர்கள் மற்றும் ஆராய்ச்சி மாணவர்களை மனதாரப் பாராட்டுகிறோம். தமிழ்மொழி மற்றும் இலக்கிய பன்னாட்டு ஆய்விதழ் / International Journal of Tamil Language and Literary Studies செம்மையாய் செயல்பட்டு ஆய்வுக் கட்டுரைகளை இணையத்தில் பதிப்பு செய்து வருகின்றது. எதிர்காலத்தில் தமிழ் ஆராய்ச்சிகளை உலக அரங்கத்திற்கு எடுத்துச் செல்ல ஓர் ஆய்வுக்களமாகவும் செயல்பட்டு வருகிறது. அதற்கு உறுதுணை அளித்த அனைவருக்கும் நன்றி.
- முனைவர் த.மகேஸ்வரி,
1. தமிழ்ப் புனைக்கதைகளில் பயன்வழிக் கொள்கை
முனைவர் ப. அன்பரசி
Pragmatic Theory in Tamil Fiction
Dr. P. Anbarasi
Pragmatism is a philosophical approach that advocates a pleasurable risk-free lifestyle that brings people happiness. The nature of modern man is utilitarian. It thinks largely of self-serving ideas. One of the characteristics of this strategy is to avoid confusing and confusing situations. Man continues to act. He is not idle. For his well-being, he is always in harmony with the world. He uses knowledge to tackle all situations. He thinks with his mind when faced with confusing situations. While thinking, he subtly separates the pros and cons. Experience is important to him. The way he deals with problems is what works for him. He believes that experience is more important than knowledge. All living beings have this experience. Over time, literature has been a reflection of the time and social environment in which it appeared. So, human feelings are also recorded in literature. Scholars refer to utilitarian principles as actions that are pleasurable to the individual. Utilitarianism is that actions that hinder his happiness are either discarded by him or pleasurable actions are created from them. In this way, Tamil fiction depicts people moving towards a happy life with money, food and practical benefits. The characters are the first to realize their problems in the Tamil novels. The factors like defining the problem, finding ways to solve the problem, and finding a solution to them are the situations embedded in the novels. This paper tries to explain all of these elements vividly recorded in Tamil fiction.
Keywords: Tamil Fiction, Pragmatism, People, Happiness, Human Life.
2. மார்க்சிய நோக்கில் ஞானக்கூத்தன் கவிதைகள்
ர. ஆர்த்தி & முனைவர் ச. பிரியதர்சினி
A Marxist View on the Poems of Gnanakoothan
R. Aarthi & Dr. C. Priyadharshini
Marxism is the theory that supports social change and development in the Tamil literary world. It is a philosophy that has contributed much to the modern world. Marxism is a philosophy developed for the ruled class instead of a philosophical perspective that was only for the interests of the ruling class. That is, the theory of Marxism was developed for the interests and liberation of the working class. The Marxist approach to social welfare and change plays a major role. Science is based on known facts. Marxism aims to free man from the social evils and miseries that still affect human society today and lead to the development of society. In the history of poetry, some of the poets belonging to the Commonwealth Party are notable. Among them was the Tamil poet Gnanakoothan. Because he was completely inspired by Marxism, his poems openly record the injustices and miseries happening in society and the condition of the working class. The far-sighted view of society and the positions of the workers in his poems does not lead to boredom when reading them, rather it creates awareness and change in the Tamil society. Finding answers to the problems of human life in Marxism is the speciality of the poet. The purpose of this research paper is to do a Marxist approach to the poems of the Tamil poet Gnanakoothan.
Keywords: Marxism, Distress, Labor Situation, Poverty, Situation.
3. குலோத்துங்கன் கவிதைகளில் அழகியல்
ரா. ஆர்த்தி & முனைவர் சு. பரணி
Aesthetics in the Poems of Kulothungan
R. Arthi & Dr. S. Bharani
Beauty is something that everyone wants. Everything that can be seen by the human eye with love and harmony is related to beauty. Beauty is related to the heart and it is a noble feeling. The aesthetic feeling is the main feeling of all other feelings in human life. In literature, if the poet has aesthetic nature, he can write a universal poem. Beauty is not only pleasure but also human suffering can be expressed through beauty. Moreover, when at a time to mention some realities in poems, one can see the use of aesthetic strategies like simile, metaphor, symbol and imagination. In Tamil literature, figures are speech has been employed from the age past to the present to deliver an aesthetic sense. Kulothungan is one of the Tamil poets who have been known for the extraordinary usage of aesthetic sense in his poems. This article examines the Tamil poet Kulothungan's poems that speak of nature, the mind of man and political works using aesthetic techniques such as simile, metaphor, symbolism and imagination.
Keywords: Kulothungan, Tamil Poet, Aesthetics, Poetic Devices.
4. பேச்சொலிகளைக் கண்டறிவதில் தமிழ் மொழிக்காகத் தழுவிய க்யூட் ஸ்பீச்
க. கலைவாணி & முனைவர் க. சம்பத் ராணி
Adapted Cued Speech for Tamil Language in Identification of Speech Sounds
K. Kalaivani & Dr. K. Sambath Rani
Language is a special feature that helps humans to exchange their feelings and thoughts. Language is used in spoken and written forms. Written forms are learned by relating with the speech sounds. In this society, people with speech and language developmental disabilities are also living with proper solution for their impairments. Most people with hearing loss cannot understand the speech. Only one-third of the speech can be understood through lip-reading. When a person does not hear sounds, the place and manner of articulation of the speech sounds look the same or invisible to the naked eye. Lack of phonemic awareness impedes their language development and impairs their reading and writing skills. To overcome this difficulty, Cued Speech, which uses cues along with speech sounds can be used. With Cued Speech, the speech sounds can be detected easily and cent percent accurately. Forty-five individuals with hearing impairment participated in the study. The results of the study show that using Cued Speech enables one to identify most of the speech sounds in the Tamil language. Due to this method, there may be a cent percent chance for speech and language development among individuals with hearing impairment. Hence, adapting Cued Speech for speech sounds in Tamil language is done for the first time which is going to help individuals with hearing impairment, living in Tamil speaking region and all over the world, to overcome the difficulties faced in language and communication and is going to be a life changing factor. Thus, this study intended to find the effectiveness of adapted Cued Speech in identifying the speech sounds in the Tamil language.
Keywords: Cued Speech, Hearing Impairment, Speech, Language, Communication.
5. தமிழ் இலக்கியத்தில் சுற்றுச்சூழலில் அழகியல் கோட்பாடு
Environmental Aesthetic Approach in Tamil Literature
Dr. J. Kavitha
Aesthetic philosophers are interested only in art whereas environmental philosophers focus more on scientific thought towards the natural world. Some Western philosophers have turned their attention to the aesthetic dimension of our experiences of nature. Such environmental aesthetics have been explored by ancient aesthetics and philosophers in India. Nowadays, many researchers of "Environmental Aesthetics" are trying to enlighten the problems related to the natural environment, different from art, and related to our experiences. Aesthetics play an important role in valuing the environment. Aesthetic value is considered a utilitarian value. The thoughts about the natural aesthetic taste and aesthetic value of the ancient Tamil poets are revealed in the paper and the purpose of the study is to bring out the views and thoughts of the ancient, medieval and later Tamil poets about nature through their works. Other environmental values such as ecological value, social value, ethical value and cultural value are compared with aesthetic values. From the beginning to the present day, theoretical aesthetic studies in the West and the East have been developing systematically. Most of them have been discussed in many fields, starting from aesthetics in art. But nowadays, due to the environmental problems and their effects on the natural environment, cultural environment and artistic monuments personal attention is being paid to the aesthetic and scientific dimensions of the environment. Thus, the purpose of this article is to review the ecological concepts in the environment through western theories. Tamil poets have had a vision of connecting life with nature since the Sangam period. Tamil poets approached and interacted with their surrounding situations while composing songs. Focusing on ecology, they divided the lands into primary, thematic, and epithets according to five types of lands like Kurinji, Mullai, Marutham, Neithal, Palai and made them live in interaction with people and other creatures. Thus, the focus of the research paper is to explore the natural environment from an aesthetic point of view.
Keywords: Nature, Environment, Aesthetics, Tamil Poets, Tamil Literature.
6. வேதாத்திரி மகரிஷியின் பார்வையில் சிறப்புணர்ந்த பெண் மதிப்பு
இரா. கீதாராணி & முனைவர் C. விஜயலக்ஷ்மி
Greatness of Women in the Vision of Vethathiri Maharishi
R. Geetharani & Dr. C. Vijayalakshmi
To be born as a woman must have done great penance. A woman deserves pride, glory and admiration. Human life consists of male and female life. Everyone are born in the union of a man and a woman. If we take it as a family, if that family has to be healthy, to have good children, to be educated and to live as responsible citizens in the society, it starts with the woman. From conceiving to nurturing and guiding all living creatures in the world, woman plays a vital role. Thiruvalluvar says that there is no greater wealth that a woman who is gifted with a chastity-minded wife. Such woman's pride is emphasized by Vethathiri Maharishi, who emphasizes the superiority of femininity by saying that women are not inferior or equal to men but are superior. According to him, any country in this world that respects women will rise in culture and economy and will reach greater heights. This study examines with support of Vethathirian concept on the plight of woman's tears and grief in the present times.
Keywords: Greatness, Women, Motherhood, Vethathriyam, Vethathiri Maharishi.
7. கடவுளின் நாற்காலி புதினத்தில் பொருளாதாரச் சூழலியல் சிந்தனைகள்
திருமதி க. சத்யஜோதி & முனைவா் ஜெ. நிர்மலா தேவி
Thoughts of Economic Ecology in the Novel Kadavulin Narkali
Mrs. K. Sathya Jothi & Dr. J. Nirmala Devi
In today's era, environmental ideas occupy very important place in world literary trends. Apart from literature, ecological studies are increasingly carried out in various fields such as sociology, anthropology, physics, and economics. Among them, in the field of economics, environmental economics plays a very important role. For more than two hundred years, economic ecology has been studied in Western countries. Many ecological economists have documented the connections between nature and the economy through their theories. Notable among them are Karl Marx, Schumacher, and Lester Brown. All their ecological economic ideas have spawned a variety of studies. Due to scientific discoveries and the mechanical revolution, human life began to diverge from nature all over the world. As a result, the world is threatened by the doubt that in the future this planet will be suitable for human habitation. Various departments are also trying to create awareness among people about the environment. Some of the contemporary Tamil Literature is doing the same. The novel 'Kadavulin Naarkali' written by 'Athiyaman Karthik' is one such literary work. The supreme seat of dominion in this world is the seat of God. “Kadavulin Naarkali'' novel highlights how the activities of private multinationals that aim to achieve this have upset the ecological balance. Natural resources are the source of all material production. It is beneficial for all living beings to use it in equal distribution systems. This concept is expressed by the ecological economist named 'Schumacher' in his book 'Small is Beautiful'. Based on the theories of such Western world experts, this article examines the novel “Kadavulin Naarkali” from an economic ecological perspective.
Keywords: Kadavulin Narkali, Economic Ecology, Athiyaman Karthik, Tamil Literature.
8. ஐங்குறுநூற்றில் நனவிலி நிலையில் தோழியின் உளவியல்
ந. சுதா & முனைவர் ச. பிரியதர்சினி
The Psyche of Thozhi in the State of Nanaveli in Ainkurunooru
N. Sudha & Dr. C. Priyadharshini
The early history of Sangam is revealed through the book of Agapoorul “Eraiynar Kalaviyal Urai”. The period of the book is before the 8th century. Tamil language and Tamil Literature portray the ancient Tamil people's antiquity and life. Sangam Literature is the base authority of ancient Tamil people and culture. Among the “Ettuthogai” books in Sangam Literature, Ainkurunuru speaks about the life of the Leader (Thalaivan) and the beloved (Thalaivi). Although it is short, it stands a virtual role in the subtlety of the subject and also explains the feeling of the lovers with the excellence of human feelings and emotions. The words used in “Ainkurunooru” mingle with our heart and also make us feel the state of joining with ancient people's feelings. Although psychological concepts are listed in the “Ainkurunooru”, they are not explained what that is properly. Mostly, the Sangam literature and the chosen work “Ainkurunooru” speak of the psychological turmoil of the beloved when the Leader is absent from home for the sake of war or business. Very simple studies focussed on the psychological state of the beloved’s friend (Thozhi). The article examines the state of mind of the beloved’s friend (Thozhi) systematically with the psychological projections and regressions of the beloved that affect her psyche. Although there are main characters in “Ainkurunooru” like the leader and beloved, the main purpose of this article is to examine the psyche of the friend (Thozhi) with the evidence found in “Ainkurunooru”.
Keywords: Psyche, Thozhi, State, Nanaveli, Ainkurunooru.
9. பாரதியார் பாடல்களில் பிள்ளைத்தமிழின் கூறுகள்
திருமதி ந. தமிழரசி & முனைவர் ஆ. மகாலட்சுமி
Elements of PillaittamiI in Bharatiyar Songs
Mrs. N. Tamilarasi & Dr. A. Mahalakshmi
Bharatiyar is an unparalleled poet of the twentieth century. He also occupies an important place in the advent of modern literature. It was through him that Tamil literature acquired new modes of feeling, sensibility and aesthetic sense. Knowing many languages, he has established the fact that Tamil is the sweetest among these languages through his works. He has created many new books like “Kannan Patu”, “Quil Patu” and “Panjali Sapadham” which are mentioned as his three major works. These differ from Perungapiyam (Classical Epics) and are arranged in such a way that laymen can read and understand them. There are many literary elements in his songs. This paper compares and does an analysis of Bharti's songs with the traditional cantos of Pillaithamil. Being a bridge between the old and the new, he has taken many small literary genres such as Mala, Pallu, Dudu, Agaval, Venpa, Thirusa Sangam, Tirupalli Eruchi, Navaratna Mala, Duvajam, Uvadham, Tirupukazh, Nenjodu Kelthal, Anga Varunanai. These genres exemplify his eruditeness in Tamil tradition and literary creativity. He has spoken about the sweetness of Konchum Mazalai in many parts and has specially mentioned the activities of Kannan and Kannamma as his children. Children are the future leaders of the country. For a child to develop well, the family structure must be perfect. Every parent must monitor the activities and developmental stages of such a child right from its birth and nurture it into the best child it can be. The child should live healthily without any harm and should live in harmony with society. One of the short pieces of literature, Pillaythamizh, best describes the developmental stages of the child and will be a noble model for the present generation. This paper describes the development of a child from birth to the twelfth month and aims to highlight the merits of Bharatiyar's songs along with the ten cantos in Pillaithamil.
Keywords: Bharathiyar, Canto, Elements, Tamil Children Literature.
10. தமிழிலக்கியங்களில் பசுமை இலக்கியங்கள்
ப. நவசக்திவேல் & முனைவர் க. புவனேஸ்வரி
Green Literature in Tamil Literature
B. Navasakthivel & Dr. K. Bhuvaneswari
Nature is the basic component of life. Humans are lovers of nature, especially Tamils who are ancient people, and have a life in harmony with nature and the culture related to it values art and literature. In Western countries, as a result of the industrial revolution, environmental disturbances appeared in the world, and in response to that, ecological thoughts related to nature were formed in the literary world, and in that way, a tendency to criticize the relationship between nature and literature appeared. Through such critical theory, the literary approach of green literature emerged. The main purpose of green literature is to protect nature. This article explains that these images can be found in Tamil literature like nature conservation and love of life. This article examines the trends of green literature that have developed directly in Tamil after the new millennium.
Keywords: Green Literature, Eco Criticism, Tamil Literature.
11. வைரமுத்து படைப்புகளில் அகமும் அறிவியலும்
க. நவநீதக்கண்ணன் & முனைவர் சி. காந்தி
Self and Science in Works of Vairamuthu
G. Navaneethakannan & Dr. S. Gandhi
Vairamuthu, a multifaceted poet, writer and literary man among contemporary songwriters, was born in the village of Vadugapatti, Theni district. He is a prolific writer of poems, short stories, novels, and haiku poems. He has attained the pinnacle of fame in the field of literature and art after receiving the prestigious awards of Padma Shri, Padma Bhushan and Sahitya Akademi. He is well known for using common language in simple words that even the common people can understand. Being a poet, he used self and scientific ideas in most of his works. He also used poetic language to polish his works. His works contain a lot of different messages filled with introspective ideas and scientific ideas. One can see the ideas of his works include scientific messages and personal ideas. As a rule, a poet will reflect people's lives and respect their feelings; he has created the real lifestyles of people in his works. He has created the life of fishermen in the novel “Thaneer Desam”, the life of a peasant in the novel “Kallikatu Ithikasam”, and the plight of a woman abandoned by her husband in the novel “Karuvachi Kavyam”. He has depicted the lives of folk artists in the novel “Oru Porkalamaun Irandu Pookkalum”. Vairamuthu’s works not only contain feelings and emotions but also self and scientific concepts that reveal original facts. By exchanging knowledge he has created real works of art by mixing basic scientific messages about land, water and air with inner love in his works. This article examines the messages that are created with the concepts of self and science in his works.
Keywords: Self, Science, Vairamuthu, Poems, Tamil Language, Tamil Literature.
12. அமைப்பியல் கோட்பாட்டு நோக்கில் பொன்னிறத்தாள் கதை
முனைவா் ஜெ. நிர்மலா தேவி
Ponnirathaal Kathai: A Structuralist Study in Folklore
Dr. J. Nirmala Devi
American folklorist Richard M. Dorson, in his book “Folklore and Folklife – An Introduction” has explained twelve research principles. D. Lourdu has translated these principles into Tamil and published the book “Nattar Vazhakkatriyal Kotpadugal”. One of these twelve theories is the Structuralist Theory. The Father of Structuralism in the field of Folklore is Vladimir Propp of Russia. Propp, who examined one hundred fairy tales compiled by Afanasyev, pointed out that only 31 functions are found recurrent in the stories. All these 31 functions cannot be found in the same story. He said that fairy tales were made up of many of these functions. Propp published his findings in 1928 in his book “Morphology of the Folk Tale” written in the Russian language. This book was translated into English in 1958. Alan Dundes started his research following Propp’s structural theory. He published the book “The Morphology of North American Indian Folktales” in 1964. Dundes removed Propp's term 'function' and adopted Kenneth Pike's term 'motifeme'. He explored in his structural analysis that there are two to six motifs found in these stories. In Tamil Literature, ‘Ponnirathaal Kathai’ is one of the ballads found in the Kanyakumari district. Ponnirathaal is worshipped as a sub-deity in Mutharamman temples at Dhammathukkonam and Puchivilagam in Agastheeswaram taluk of Kanyakumari district. The manuscripts say that Ulagudaiya Perumal Nadar is the author of “Ponnirathaal Kathai”. This story mentions that Ponnirathaal's husband Inasuran is the son of Thirumalai Nayakan. Ananja Perumal and Ponmari have seven sons. They wanted a girl child and got from penance and named ‘Ponnirathaal’. Ponniratthal and Inasuran got married. After two years, she became pregnant. In the seventh month, she came to her mother’s home as per the clan's custom. She saw many evil omens and while she was going for bathing with her friends, she was killed by thugs who looted the Kattalamman temple. By the boons from Lord Siva, she avenged them and became a deity. This article examines ‘Ponnirathaal Kathai’ according to the structural theories of Vladimir Propp and Alan Dundes.
Keywords: Ponnirathaal Kathai, Structural Theory, Vladimir Propp, Alan Dundes.
13. கந்தபுராணத்தில் வினைக்கொள்கை - எடுத்துரைப்பியல் நோக்கு
க. பவித்ரா & முனைவர் சு. பரணி
A Narrative Study of Action in Kandhapuranam
K. Pavithra & Dr. S. Bharani
Narrative theory is a growing critical theory in contemporary Tamil literary studies. People use the language to express their inner thoughts. Creators create many works of literature using this language and spread their ideas in the world. Paraphrasing is the method used by the reviewer to convey those ideas to the readers. Narrative theory helps to bring out many elements like storyline, plot, events etc. found in literature like stories, songs, poems etc. The epic “Kandhapuranam” composed by Kachiyappa Sivacharyar is a mythological literature that elaborates from the birth of Murugan to the destruction of Soorabanman and the divine marriage of Murugan. “Kandhapuranam” is full of Saivite ideas, and emphasizes the principle of action as per karma. Muruga was born to destroy Soorabanman, who imprisoned and tortured the Devas. “Kandhapuranam” has the basic theme that the reason for the Devas being bullied by Soorabanman is because of their prideful and vile actions. In this way, the purpose of this article is to study how the principle of action has been located in the narrative structure of the “Kandhapuranam” and how the author Kachiyappa Sivacharya presents the principle of action through the narration of the story.
Keywords: Kandhapuranam, Kachiyappa Sivacharyar, Karma, Action, Narration.
14. பாரதியார் கவிதைகளில் பெண்ணியம்
செ. பவித்ரா & முனைவர் ஆ. மகாலட்சுமி
Feminism in the Poems of Bharathiar
S. Pavithra & Dr. A. Mahalakshmi
Women are in an indispensable position in Tamil society. Woman occupies an indispensable place in this world. Without women, there would be nothing on earth. Our people worship the earth as their mother. Through Shakti worships, one can know that our society has given importance to women since many centuries ago. Indeed, many of the tamil literary texts have given importance to women. Evidence can be found in literature like “Silapathikaram” and “Manimekalai”. One can learn about the status of early women and their bravery through Sangam literature. Tamil people worship women as Gods. The condition of enslaving women who are seen as Gods has changed a lot in modern times. The condition that women should get proper education has gained a lot of acceptance among our people today. Little by little they are recovering from the effects of treating women like slaves and from dowry abuse. However, in few places, this situation is still observed today. Many radical men and women have fought for the development of women and have seen success. In this article, the researcher will see the progress of women from the poems of Bharathiar who plays an important role in the development of women.
Keywords: Feminism, Poems, Bharathiar, Tamil Literature.
15. கரிய மாணிக்க பெருமாள் கோயிலின் கல்வெட்டுச் செய்திகள்
மீ. பார்வதி & முனைவர் S. நித்யகல்யாணி
Inscriptions of Kariya Manikka Perumal Temple
M. Parvathi & Dr. S. Nithya Kalyani
The Inscriptions of Kariya Manikka Perumal Temple, Idaikal, Ambasamutram, Tirunelveli are ancient inscriptions found on the walls of the Kariya Manikka Perumal Temple in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu. These inscriptions date back to the 12th century and are written in Tamil language on stones and copper plates.The inscriptions provide valuable historical information about the ruling dynasties, their patronage of temples, land grants, and social and religious practices of the time. The inscriptions mention the contributions made by various kings and commanders, including the Pandya, Vijayanagara, and Nayak dynasties. Some of the inscriptions also describe the administrative and legal systems in place during the period, including land ownership, taxation, and judicial procedures. Additionally, the inscriptions provide information about the various festivals and rituals that were conducted in the temple, as well as the role of the temple in the social and cultural life of the people. Overall, the Inscriptions of Kariya Manikka Perumal Temple provide a glimpse into the rich history and culture of Tamil Nadu, and serve as an important source of information for researchers and scholars interested in the region’s history and society. During the period of Bhakti literature in Tamil Nadu, Saivism and Vaishnavism sidelined Jainism and Buddhism. When man began to realize that his energy was limited, he began to realize that there is something beyond energy and that there is a Supreme One who is capable of controlling everything, and the beginning of worship was created. Big Temples were built by the kings based on these and their reverence to the Gods. Hence, the article studies about the Inscriptions of Kariya Manikka Perumal Temple.
Keywords: Tamil Inscriptions, Meikeertis, Kariya Manikka Perumal Temple, Tirunelveli.
16. பெண்ணியத் திறனாய்வு அடிப்படையில் மாதர் மறுமணம் இதழ் - ஓர் ஆய்வு
வீ. பாஸ்கரன் & முனைவர் மு. சு. கண்மணி
A Feminist Analysis of the Magazine Matar Marumanam - A Study
V. Baskaran & Dr. M. S. Kanmani
Magazines have been doing the work of bringing the happenings in the society to the people. In the Tamil Magazine World one of the oldest magazines is “Matar Marumanam”. It is known that “Matar Marumanam” Magazine has exposed the injustices happening in Tamil society, especially the injustices happening to widows who have lost their husbands from the past to the present times it hoisted its articles. The magazine is radical and fought for the liberation of the suppressed women in patriarchal domination and hegemony. This article is based on a feminist critique of oppression employed on exposed women in “Mathar Marumanam” magazine. Through this article, we can know that women who have lost their husbands have been denied remarriage, young girls who have not reached puberty are married to older men and they reach the stage of widowhood in their childhood. Through this article, we can learn that if young widowed women fall in love with another man or if they want to remarry the man they loved, the patriarchal society not only prohibits it but also kills or to make them to commit suicide.
Keywords: Patriarchy, Feminist Analysis, Magazine, Matar Marumanam.
17. ஒப்பீட்டுத் திறனாய்வு நோக்கில் திருமூலரின் திருமந்திரம், கவிமணியின் உமர்கய்யாம் பாடல்கள்
முனைவர் ந. புனிதலெட்சுமி
A Comparative Analysis of Thirumoolar's Thirumantram and Kavimani's Omar Khayyam Songs
Dr. N. Punithalakshmi
Comparative studies widen the views of life. It will help to learn and share intellectual knowledge from diverse cultures. Omar Khayyam is a Persian poet, who composed poems on human life and destiny. His work is called “Rubaiyat”. It has been translated into English by Fitz Gerald and in Tamil by Kavimani. This article has been planned to do a comparative study of Omar Khayyam’s songs with the songs of Thirumoolar’s “Thirumanthiram”. Both writers composed works on the suffering that follows a man in rebirth due to karmic actions, even after death. Thirumoolar and Omar Khayyam portrayed many matters of life such as fate, impermanence of life and disease. According to them, the body, youth and life are not stable. Life has to take birth from the mother's womb in the world due to karmic reactions. Karmic bonds and multiple births make it impossible to get the liberation of the soul. One can be seen that the thought flow of Persian poet Omar Khayyam and the ideas of Thirumoolar are similar in many concepts. The concepts of “Rubaiyat” and “Thirumantram” can be studied in many different ways in the future from various angles to know the in-depth truths of the philosophical works. Hence, this article evinces a study on “Rubaiyat” and “Thirumantram” with ample evidence from the primary sources.
Keywords: Comparative Analysis, Thirumoolar, Thirumantram, Kavimani, Omar Khayyam, Rubaiyat.
18. நாட்டுப்புறக்கதையும் சிலப்பதிகாரக்கதையும் ஓர் ஒப்பாய்வு
முனைவர் அ. மகபூபு
A Comparative Analysis of Folklore and Silappathikaram
Dr. A. Mahabobu
Literary research has been conducted every minuite in the name of 'Literary Criticism' and is now growing rapidly all over the world. Many books on literary criticism have been written in Western languages such as English, Russian, German, French, and Italian. Tho.Mu. Ragunathan wrote the first book on Literary Criticism in Tamil. Following this, many books and researches began to appear. Today, many studies are conducted using multiple analytical approaches and using one or the other approach. Folklore is the collective language of the people and the people wish to hear and watch them. They are enacted or sung to give knowledge in a simple way to the laymen in any society. Tamil Literature has rich evidence in folk literature. They are mostly ballads. In many areas of Tamil Nadu, folkloristic features are in vogue and people enjoy it. Most probably, ancient myths, legends, epics, and other regional incidents or calamities are the main themes of folklore. Among them, the greatest epic “Silappathikaram” is one of the major plots of folklore. It evinces the morals in society and strengthens the mind with goodness. Very limited research has been conducted in this area. Hence, this article will conduct a comparative analysis of folklore and “Silappathikaram”.
Keywords: Comparative Analysis, Tamil Literature, Folklore, Silappathikaram.
19. தமிழ்க் கவிதைகளில் இருத்தலியம்
முனைவர் செ. ரவிசங்கர்
Existentialism in Tamil Poetry
Dr. C. Ravisankar
Man has always been addicted to something and enslaved himself to his existence. As a result of existential influence, literature prioritized the existence of the individual. It is called 'existentialism'. Existentialism is deeply expressed in the later modern literature of the West. Many dramas, novels, short stories, short poems, and other genres are influenced by existentialism. Every man has his own existence and it is the first and fundamental. A poet evaluates everything else by the state of existence. He blames himself for his problems. Man chooses his own life. This is the basic principle of this existential philosophy. Existentialism was widely employed as a theory only after the Second World War. It focuses primarily on the existence of the individual and his problems. The miseries of human life like death, emptiness, guilt, panic, suffering, loss and nostalgia are the central themes of existentialism. Tamil people also have concentrated on existentialism. Many poems were written on the influence of existentialism. Tamil existentialism delineates the idea that the individual is responsible for the meaning of one's own life and to live that life in its own emotional, true, and living despite many obstacles, distractions, suffering, longing, absurdity, isolation, boredom etc. by doing an analysis on the influence of existentialism on Tamil poetry, one can understand the nuances in the society. Hence, this article is to decipher the influence of existentialism in Tamil poems.
.Keywords: Existentialism, Individual, Tamil Poetry, Tamil Literature.
20. இனவரைவியல் நோக்கில் ‘சங்கம்’ புதினம்
திருமதி க. ராமு & முனைவா் ஜெ. நிர்மலா தேவி
The Novel Sangam in Ethnographic Perspective
Mrs. G. Ramu & Dr. J. Nirmala Devi
Ethnography is a branch of the field of anthropology that originated in Western academic fields at the end of the nineteenth century. The English word ‘Ethnography’ is derived from two Greek words 'Ethnos' and 'graphein'. 'Ethnos' means race, ethnic group or people. 'Graphein' means ‘writing’ or ‘drawing’. Therefore, writing about a particular ethnic group or people can be called ethnography. The ethnographic knowledge of the author is the reason behind such messages that appear in the literature. Ethnographic information about a particular race in literature contributes to the character creation and background of that literature. Ethnography is the study of a particular group of people or a particular community. There are many new kinds of literature in the Tamil community that records the traditions of the particular society along with their feelings. Ku. Chinnappa Bharathi's novel 'Sangam' has portrayed the Kolli hill community from an ethnographic perspective. If the land is life for the tiller or the mountain dwellers the mountain; they live in the same place. The land and the land people or the mountain and mountain people cannot be separated. The writer who wants to record the life of the people can only record the life of the people according to the place. The basic elements of ethnography such as the writer's personal experience, field experience, and book knowledge have been combined to create a new association that tells the life of the people. The Tamil novel “Sangam” delineates the people of the Kolli Hills. The author portrays the life of the people of Kolli Hills through the life of Savichadayan, son of Savithiruman. Sadayan’s fear of the two policemen, the way of life of the people, geography, environment, climate, residential system, family structure, social structure, marriage system, housing system, life rituals, dowry, economy, industry, production, consumption, distribution, exchange, political system, social control, traditional laws, religious beliefs, worship, festivals, games, aesthetic thoughts are portrayed in the novel. Hence, the novel 'Sangam' is an ethnographic repository that includes the entire life of the people of Kolli Hills and the article examines this from an ethnographic perspective.
Keywords: Tamil Novel, Ku. Chinnappa Bharathi, Sangam, Ethnographic Perspective.
21. பண்பாட்டு மானிடவியல் நோக்கில் ‘இத்தா’ புதினம்
க. லெட்சுமி & முனைவா் ஜெ. நிர்மலா தேவி
Idtha Novel in the Perception of Cultural Anthropology
G. Lakshmi & Dr. J. Nirmala Devi
Anthropology is the result of man's quest to know about him. It is a systematic scientific study of mankind. Anthropology is derived from the combination of two Greek words 'Anthropos' and 'Logos'. Aristotle first used the term 'Anthropologist' which means 'science of man'. Anthropology is considered essential to find out what constitutes an individual or a society. Today, anthropology has grown into many different disciplines. One of them is cultural anthropology. It is no exaggeration to say that the entire movement of society is encapsulated in the single word 'Culture'. Although all societies are structured by culture; culture differs from society to society. All society imposes certain restrictions on the community to preserve its culture. It seeks to uphold its own culture by punishing the transgressor. The Islamic community is no exception to this. Literature has always had a place among the instruments of culture. A writer is a part of society and when he creates literature in the context of his community, he records the culture of that community. In this way, the Tamil novel 'Idtha' written by Kiranur Zakir Raja has an Islamic code word in the name itself. Only Muslim women can see the dawn of 'Remarriage' after passing through the darkness of ‘Idtha'. It can be seen in the novel that the Islamic religious norms, rituals and colloquial words are different from other social people. 'Idtha' novel explains the 'Talaq' system that men give to women and the 'Gula' system that women give to men. Such norms, laws and rituals converge at the point of 'culture'. From a cultural anthropological perspective, this article explores the Islamic culture and the 'Idtha' ritual in the novel 'Idtha'.
Keywords: Cultural, Anthropology, Idtha Novel.
22. தேனப்பன் படைப்புகளில் எழுத்தியல் நெறிகள்
முனைவர் ச. விசாலாட்சி
Stylistic Norms in the Works of Thenappan
Dr. S. Visalakshi
Modern Tamil prose differs greatly from the Tamil prose that was written on palm leaflets in the past centuries. Today there is great discrimination in following norms while writing. Although many variations are the result of carelessness on the part of writers and printers, some also show the resilience of contemporary Tamil. The works that appeared in Tamil have expressed scientific facts and discoveries and revealed the purpose and direction of life. Va. Tenappan’s ideals of social analysis are the base of his fiction. The structure of society for objectification in his works is creative and valuable. The purpose of the paper is to understand the creative style used by Va. Tenappan in his fiction. Style is the expression of a creator's personality. A stylistic perspective is useful for understanding the wholeness of work and the individuality of the author, making it the ideal of good writing. Present memories, past thoughts, and future expectations in fiction are according to the change of time. Va. Tenappan’s turmoil and emotions can be seen in his works. Literary research requires a great deal of knowledge to examine the language of the writer. Va. Tenappan’s language uses language to express his thoughts, emotions and opinions according to his style. His techniques are engaging, innovative and effective. A writer's style with sharp introspection and rich language will be excellent. Writers employ certain strategies to express their ideas and experiences in a meaningful way. It is these strategies that make stories last. Va. Tenappan has chosen suitable techniques for his work. The strategy is to convey the essence of the story and give shape and style to the story. To make a point soundly one must use appropriate techniques. The author exposes the energies and shortcomings of the character. The author's use of vernacular prose in his fiction exaggerates the quality and influence of the stories in the style of the work. In the works of Va. Tenappan the events that happened in his life, the events that happened in his relative's house and the events of his background, the urban community, are reflected in the fiction. Hence, this article is intended to observe his deep story writing skills, imaginative resources, conceptual clarity, the course of fiction, and his experience through select Va. Tenappan works with stylistic elements.
Keywords: Tamil Literature, Stylistics, Norms, Works, Va. Thenappan.
23. சங்ககால மகளிரின் இல்லற வாழ்வும் மேற்கத்திய மகளிரின் இல்லறவாழ்வும்
க. வீரராகவன் & முனைவர் வை. இராமன்
Domestic Life of Sangam Women and Western Women
K. Veeraragavan & Dr. V. Raman
The women of the Sanga period were devoted to their spouses, regardless of whether they were forced into marriage by their parents or married out of love. They patiently awaited their husband's arrival even though he had abandoned her in search of material goods and split from them to earn more. Since women are in charge of the household, they manage it by taking on whatever menial tasks they can when the family's needs for revenue are not met. In addition to the fact that Sangam women behaved in a way that is consistent with a family woman who loves her husband and respects his in-laws, human existence is something that must be fought for and lived successfully amidst numerous difficulties, pains, and aspirations. Controlling one's passions before and after marriage can be extremely difficult, especially when one is young. Western womanhood is not alike the Tamil customs. Even though one can see very promising women in the West. Comparing the lives of Tamil women during the Sangam era to Emma Bovary is a promising study to know the quality of women of varied diversity and cultures. Madame Bovary led one of the worst domestic lives lacking sufficient resources like food, clothing, ornaments, and a comfortable home in her husband's home and commits suicide. This shows the quality of perseverance of women in different societies. Therefore, the study reveals that Tamil women live with chastity with a strong sense of perseverance at critical times.
Keywords: Domestic life, Sangam Women, Western Women.
24. மார்க்கிசிய நோக்கில் உப்புவயல்
அ. வெங்கடேஸ்வரி & முனைவர் அ. ஜாண்பால்
Uppuvayal in Marxist Perspective
A. Venkateswari & Dr. A. Johnpaul
Society consists of various platforms like economy, politics, religion, education, art, literature etc. Among them, economics is the foundation of a society. Other areas of life and society are based on economic values. The economic infrastructure affects everything in society. The economy also defines the living standards of the people. Politics, culture, and religion also affect human life to some extent. The ups and downs caused by this economic condition divide society. The rich exploit and oppresses the poor. In a civilized society, the divisions of poor-rich, ruler-ruled, master-slave, and exploiter-exploited exist. The slave system, Land tenure system are seen at different periods in social development. Economic inequality also developed various social systems such as the Democratic, Federal, Capitalist, Marxist, Communist, Fascist, and other political ideologies in society. Tamil Literature also has portrayed such instances of plot, structure and characterization. Many Tamil writers have used Marxism as a tool to structure their stories. Uppu Vayal (Salt Field) is a novel written by Sridhara Ganesan. He has portrayed the marginalized society who are working in the salt fields and their dreams shattered by the landlords. One can see such economic imbalances in this novel Uppu Vayal (Salt Field). Hence, the article ponders over the novel from a Marxist perspective to bring down the state of the suppressed people.
.Keywords: Sridhara Ganesan, Uppuvayal (Salt Field), Novel, Marxist Perspective.
25. புதுமைப்பித்தன் சிறுகதைகளில் அகலிகை: தொன்மக் கட்டுடைப்பும் மறுவாசிப்பும்
முனைவர் பா. ஜெய்கணேஷ்
Agaligai in Puthumaippithan’s Short Stories: A Deconstruction and Rereading of Mythology
Dr. B. Jaiganesh
In the realm of literature, Valmiki, through his “Ramayana”, introduces the earliest rendition of Agalya's tale. Delightfully, Kambar in Tamil Literature who was inspired by Valmiki's “Ramayana”, wrote an adaptation of “Ramayana” often called “Kambaramayanam” uses the story of Agalya with the rich heritage of Tamil cultural tradition. This retelling by Kambar sets the stage for a multitude of creative minds in the 20th century who engage with the story of Agalya across different mediums, yielding diverse and remarkable outcomes in modern literature. Within the realm of Tamil short story literature, Pudhumaipiththan is a visionary writer, a luminary of the 20th century Tamil literature who revolutionized the norms of this narrative art ushering it into a transformative medium. He penned two exquisite tales, "Agalyai" and "Saaba Vimosanam," casting their intricate shadows upon the enigmatic figure of Agalikai. Through these masterpieces, Pudhumaipiththan deftly manipulates the contours of the mythical Agalikai, threading her essence with nuanced adjustments in his story. This article delves into the reimagining of Agalikai within 20th century Tamil literature, offering a nuanced exploration of its profound implications. It also endeavours to scrutinize the profound metamorphosis that befalls Agalikai and intertwines with the resonant threads of contemporary Tamil intellectualism, engendering a compelling renaissance of thought in the arena of 20th century Tamil Literature.
Keywords: Agaligai, Puthumaippithan, Tamil Short Stories, Deconstruction, Rereading, Myth.
26. அடிக்கருத்தியல் கோட்பாட்டு நோக்கில் குறிஞ்சிப் பாட்டு
A Themetological Approach to Kurincipattu
Dr. R. Jaisankar
Thematology is one of the most important theories in Literary criticism. Comparative scholars on this theory such as Prawer, Harilewin and Ulrich Weinstein have formed fundamental principles of thematology that are common to World Literature. Based on the principles of thematology, the poems of “Kurincippattu” written by Kapilar have been examined in this article. Many concepts of thematological principles closely coincide with the poems of “Kurincippattu”. By doing an analysis, one can find out whether the thematological principles coincide or not in the poems. Also, it is explained how Kapilar explained the natural life of the Kurinci people. These people got many crises in food production and other matters of life. Kapilar also explained the land of the Kurinci people, festivals, habits, rituals, marriage life and other social problems. It would be productive to conduct research in such areas to understand Tamil culture from a Western perspective. It would also be fruitful in the field of research in world literature by examining the poems of “Pattuppattu” concerning the principles of thematology. Hence, this article plans to do a critical study in connection with the thematological approach to the Kurinci songs.
Keywords: Thematology, Literary Criticism, World Literature, Kapilar, Kurincipattu.
27. பத்துப்பாட்டில் விருந்தோம்பல் பண்பு
அ. ஜெயா & முனைவர் த. சந்திரகுமார்
Hospitality in Paththupattu
A. Jeya & Dr. T. Chandrakumar
“Paththupattu” is a collection of ten Tamil Idylls written by many poets. The poems of “Paththupattu” focus on various aspects of life, including hospitality. The concept of hospitality is an important aspect of Tamil culture the guest is equivalent to God. In one of the poems in Paththupattu, it emphasizes the importance of showing respect and hospitality to guests and teachers, who are considered equals to Gods. By offering hospitality to guests, one can earn the blessings of God, which leads to prosperity and happiness. The poets of “Paththupattu” illustrate the importance of unity and the virtue of hospitality that brings people together. Overall, Paththupattu highlights the significance of hospitality in Tamil culture and emphasizes the importance of treating guests with respect and kindness. All the poems which are considered “Paththupattu” constitute a work of art which expresses the life of a Tamil race, culture, heritage, trait and civilization of the Tamil people. Thus, this research study is based on hospitality as portrayed in “Paththupattu”. Half of the books in “Paththupattu” books are called ‘Aatrupadai’ (hospitality and compassion) books. The Aatrupadai Literature often conveys the message of the hospitality of Tamil society. This article provides the details of the hospitality provided by the king to the poets, artists and other needy people, with food, clothing, shelter etc.
Keywords: Paththupattu, Aatrupadai, Hospitality, Culture, Civilization, Tamil Culture.
28. ஆவியுலகக் கோட்ப்பாடு நோக்கில் விருட்ச சைத்திய வழிபாடு
முனைவர் மி. ஜென்சிஸ் குமார்
Vridsha Chaitya Worship in the Perspective of Astral Theory
Dr. M. Jenciskumar
One of the ancient Tamil traditions of worship is tree worship (Vridsha worship), which is called 'Vriksha chaitya' by the Buddhists. Tree worship also has an important place in the religious development of the Tamil people. Religion is an important domain as far as Tamil culture is concerned. Within the field of religion, there are many elements such as deities, worship methods, rituals, ceremonies, and prayers. The origins of the Tamils' worship tradition are rooted in the energies embodied in nature. Before the Gods came into being Tamils worshipped energies. In the beginning, man's life depended on the forest. There Kanurai deities, Kanamar Selvi and Katukil were identified as deities. Belief in the presence of deities in the forests especially in the trees was prevalent. Thus, in the tradition of folk worship, the belief in the tree-enveloping deity is replete with many rituals. Their rituals are performed in the form of sacrifices and some rituals are performed in the background of the concept of exchange. An alternative ritual is the rite practised in the southern districts. Thus, this paper will be a study of the rituals and beliefs related to tree worship from the perspective of astral theory.
Keywords: Vridsha Chaitya Worship, Tree Worship, Astral Theory.
29. தொடரியல் நோக்கில் `வீரசோழியவேற்றுமைத் தொடர்
முனைவர் அ. ஹெப்சி ரோஸ் மேரி
Case Markers in Virachozhiyam – A Syntactic Study
Dr. A. Hepsy Rose Mary
Traditional Grammar highlights the antiquity and novelty of the Tamil language. The advent of Western theories brought about a great change not only in Tamil literature but also in Traditional Grammar. For example, M.A. Nuhumaan’s book “Adippadai Tamil Ilakkanam” has given more importance to Tamil syntax. This article is based on the hypothesis that syntactic concepts were present in Tamil Traditional Grammar before the appearance of Western theories in Indian literature. This article explores the syntactical concepts found in “Veerachozhiyam Vettumai Patalam”. This article examines the syntactical concepts found in Tamil sentences where case Markers occur.
Keywords: Tamil Traditional Grammar, Case Markers, Virachozhiyam, Syntactic Study.
30. Strength and Resilience in Tamil Dalit Literature: Examining Dalit Feminism through the Lens of Bama’s Works and Western Feminist Theory
Anju Maria Sebastian
India has a rich history of literature. But it had been governed by the writings of the men and the privileged class for the longest time. The emergence of Dalit writing in Tamil Nadu was a crucial step towards resisting hegemonised dogmas and reclaiming the Dalit identity. Overcoming the shackles of double oppression, Tamil Dalit women came out with works describing their individual and collective experiences of humiliation and rejection. Bama Faustina’s “Karukku” and “Sangati” are two important works that helped bring together the voices of Dalit women through their experiences of trauma and subjugation. Bama explores how caste and religion create a complex web of discrimination and oppression. The novels also highlight the resilience and strength of Dalit women, and their ability to resist and challenge the dominant social order. The intersection of Dalit literature and Western feminism in these works is traced in this article. The works are analysed with the help of feminist theories, to bring out the convergence of gender, patriarchy and caste and class which create a particularly oppressive environment for Dalit women. The article also discusses how third-world feminism paved the way for the representation and acceptance of women in Asian, African and other racial setups.
Keywords: Strength, Resilience, Tamil Dalit Literature, Dalit Feminism, Bama, Karukku, Sangathi.
31. Technological Singularity in Sujatha Ranganathan’s En Iniya Iyanthira and Meendum Jeeno
The research paper aims at exploring the narrative aesthetics of Tamil science fiction in which the author takes twenty-first-century politics in India within the context of technological singularity. The article presents the political situation and totalitarianism in the age of technological singularity. The research focuses on the social impacts of artificial intelligence’s ability to read, learn, think, and act against its pre-programmed mechanism. A robotic dog struggles to restore a democratic political system from autocracy. The dystopian fictions “En Iniya Iyanthira” and “Meendum Jeeno” written by Sujatha Ranganathan depict the cognitive power of super intelligence behind a woman’s political actions to protect the people of India from exploitation, and corruption to create a better future. The paper demonstrates what a world without individual freedom looks like under the digital surveillance system of a totalitarian regime. The paper raises the question of what happens when a robot develops its rationality and mimics human behaviour. In these fictions, humans attempt to destroy the robotic dog. The robotic dog reaches a standard where nothing can destroy it. The paper explores the ways the robotic dog gains the knowledge to understand and practice the concept of humanity. The paper concludes with the post-humanistic conflicts between a woman and a robotic dog in emotional, ethical, and political aspects.
Keywords: Technological Singularity, Totalitarianism, Post-humanism, Sujatha Ranganathan, En Iniya Iyanthira and Meendum Jeeno.
32. Agro Techniques and Organic Farming Aspects during the Tamil Sangam Literature Era Concerning Nammazhvar’s Thoughts
Dr. K. Prakash & Dr. S. Pragadeeswaran
Sangam literature, often known as "the poetry of the noble ones" refers to ancient Tamil language and culture and is South India's earliest known literature. The earliest accessible Tamil literature is known as Sangam literature. The purpose of this study is to compare G. Nammazhvar's agricultural concepts and theories with the role of modern business people and their enterprise planning behaviour from the evidence of the Tamil Sangam literary age to the present times. The paper gives an introduction to examine the business aspects of Sangam poems concerning Nammazhvar's agricultural concepts. Nammazhvar travelled across the globe, studied agricultural approaches in diverse ecological systems, and then trained many farmers and NGO personnel using his findings. His method is a successful one that gives health to the consumer and wealth to the land. He has written several books and articles in Tamil on organic farming methods. He attracted a significant readership from all sections of the society. Nammazhvar extensively travelled the south and gave training sessions on ecological farming over a significant portion of his life to ensure organic farming methods as per the natural life led at the times of the Sangam Period. Hence, the paper will be an eye-opener to the agro techniques and organic farming methods employed at the times of the Sangam Era regarding the great eco-agriculturalist Nammazhvar and business-oriented positive goals.
Keywords: Agro Techniques, Organic Farming, Tamil Sangam Literature, Nammazhvar Agricultural Method, Nammazhvar’s Thoughts.