தொகுதி - 6, சிறப்பிதழ் - 1, அக்டோபர் 2023
Volume - 6 Special Issue - 1, October 2023
Articles 01- 27
தமிழ்மொழி மற்றும் இலக்கியத்திற்காக எமது தமிழ்மொழி மற்றும் இலக்கிய பன்னாட்டு ஆய்விதழ் (Ijtlls) தம் இலக்கிய மற்றும் ஆராய்ச்சி அரும்பணியைச் செம்மையாகச் செய்து வருகின்றது. யு.ஜி.சி. கேர் (UGC CARE), எம்.எல்.ஏ (MLA) மற்றும் டி.ஓ.ஏ.ஜே (DOAJ) போன்ற ஆய்வுத் தளங்களில் மதிப்பீடு செய்யப்பட்ட எமது ஆய்விதழில் கௌரவ சிறப்பிதழ் ஆசிரியர்களாகப் பணியாற்றிட தன்னார்வம் கொண்ட பேராசிரியர்களுக்கு வாய்ப்பளிக்கப்பட்டுள்ளது. மேலும், இச்சிறப்பிதழில் பெருமைமிகு பல்கலைக்கழகங்கள், கல்லூரிகள் மற்றும் ஆய்விதழ்களில் இருந்து பங்கு கொண்ட பேராசிரியர்கள் சிறந்த கட்டுரைகளை வழங்கியமைக்கு நன்றியைத் தெரிவித்துக் கொள்கிறேன். தமிழர்கள் பெரும்பாலும் வாழ்க்கையின் ஒழுக்கம் மற்றும் நெறிமுறைகளில் கவனம் செலுத்தி வருபவர்கள். குடும்பம், சமூகம் மற்றும் கலாச்சாரத்திற்கு அதிக முக்கியத்துவம் கொடுப்பவர்கள். தமிழர் வாழ்வு இயற்கையைத் தழுவியே அமைந்துள்ளது. அதற்கானச் சான்று தமிழ் இலக்கியத்தில் எண்ணில் அடங்காமல் உள்ளது. இன்றைய உலகு நமது முன்னோர்களால் நமக்கு தூய்மையாக அளிக்கப்பட்டது. அதை நமது சந்ததியினருக்குத் தூய்மையாக அளிப்பது நமது தலையாயக் கடமையாகும். புவியியல் சூழலில் அளவு கடந்த பிரச்சனை ஏற்பட்டுள்ளது. அதற்கு மனித வாழ்வின் எந்திரப் புரட்சியும் அதன் மூலமாக இயற்கையைச் சீர்குலைக்கும் முறைகளும் காரணங்களாக அமைகின்றன. இதனால் மனிதன் மட்டுமல்லாமல் ஏனைய நிலம் மற்றும் கடல்சார் உயிரினங்களும் துன்புற்று வருகின்றன. தற்பொழுது சீர்குலைந்து நிற்கும் புவி மற்றும் வானிலை மாற்றத்தைச் சமன்படுத்த நாம் முறையான இயற்கை சார் கலாச்சாரத்தை ஏற்படுத்துவது நமது முதன்மையான கடமையாகும். பல ஆயிரம் ஆண்டுகளுக்கு முன்னரே தமிழ் இலக்கியத்தில் இயற்கை பற்றிய சிந்தனைகள் மற்றும் அதன் முக்கியத்துவமும் குறிக்கப்பட்டுள்ளன. அவைதனைக் கொண்டு நாம் சந்தித்து வரும் சுற்றுப்புறச் சூழல் பிரச்சினையைத் தீர்க்கும் வழிமுறைகளைக் காண்பதற்காகத், தமிழ் சூழலியல் இலக்கியமும் வானிலை மாற்றத்தைச் சமன்படுத்தும் முறைகளும் / Tamil Ecological Literature and Ways to Balance Climate Change எனும் தலைப்பிலான பயிற்சிப் பட்டறை மற்றும் காணொளி கருத்தரங்கம் தமிழ்நாட்டில் முன்னெடுக்கப்பட்டு அதன்மூலம் தலைசிறந்த பல்கலைக்கழகங்கள், கல்லூரிகள் மற்றும் ஆய்விதழ்களில் தமிழ்மொழி மற்றும் இலக்கியம் சிறக்கப் பணியாற்றக்கூடிய பேராசிரியர்களின் சிந்தனைகளின் வழி பெற்ற தரமான 27 ஆய்வுக்கட்டுரைகளைத் தொகுத்து ஆய்வு நெறிமுறைகளின்படி தணிக்கைச் செய்யப்பட்டு, மதிப்புரை வழங்கி, செம்மைப்படுத்தி இணையத்தில் எமது ஆய்விதழ் வாயிலாகச் சிறப்பிதழாகப் பதிப்பு செய்தமைக்கு அகமகிழ்வடைகிறேன். ஆய்வுக்கட்டுரைகள் வழங்கி சிறப்பித்தத் தமிழ்ப்பேராசிரியர்கள், எழுத்தாளர்கள், தமிழ் ஆர்வலர்கள் மற்றும் ஆராய்ச்சி மாணவர்களை மனதாரப் பாராட்டுகிறேன். தமிழ்மொழி மற்றும் இலக்கிய பன்னாட்டு ஆய்விதழ் / International Journal of Tamil Language and Literary Studies செம்மையாய் செயல்பட்டு ஆய்வுக் கட்டுரைகளை இணையத்தில் பதிப்பு செய்து வருகின்றது. எதிர்காலத்தில் தமிழ் ஆராய்ச்சிகளை உலக அரங்கத்திற்கு எடுத்துச் செல்ல ஓர் ஆய்வுக்களமாகவும் செயல்பட்டு வருகிறது. அதற்கு உறுதுணை அளித்த அனைவருக்கும் நன்றி.
1. நற்றிணையில் வேளாண்மை சூழலியலும் மெய்ப்பாடுகளும்
அ. அக்ஸிலியா மேரி
Authenticity of Agricultural Ecology in Natrinai
Ms. A. Auxilia Mary
Ecological conservation is a new concept that has been spoken of by people around the world in recent times. Today, the Janasabha is working on new objectives for environmental protection and disaster prevention. Tamil literature points out that human society has realized the necessity of the environment since the beginning of time and has been producing food products according to the land, and water bodies. In ancient times, the living environment of the agricultural people was independent. Agricultural workers lived by giving material they owned to others and not by taking material from others. Today, due to various variations in ecology and the declining quality of food production, people are exposed to various risks and stress. Mainly the impact of disease is increasing. Many ideas about agriculture are found in the work “Natrinai”. The main objective of this article is to present and explain the feelings of people about different landscapes, agriculture in five types of land, planting, irrigation technique, land processing, specialty of plowing, animal husbandry etc. Man can live without information technology but cannot survive without food. This article also expresses the true sentiments that the Tamils were the ones who discovered many scientific methods for food production during the Sangam period itself.
Keywords: Authenticity, Agriculture, Ecology, Tamil People, Natrinai.
2. சங்க இலக்கியம் - ஓர் அறிவியல் பார்வை
முனைவர் க. அமலா கார்த்திகா
Sangam Literature is a Scientific View
Dr. G. Amala Karthiga
The Sangam literature is a record of the life of the early Tamils and the lifestyle of their life together with nature. Scientific news has not been examined with the love, fame and fame of old Tamilians. If they are analysed scientifically, one can find out the scientific knowledge of ancient Tamils. In explaining that, the article is to be designed. Science is the process of taking us from one level to the next level. Science is a place where we do not have science and we will have to be stagnant. Instead of man, all otherworldly life finds its way through physical organs, man only gets through his thoughts. Some of us are astonished by the scientific knowledge and feeling among the Tamils of today's scientific thought, especially the thinking of astronomy. Today, science, physics, chemistry, biology and medical sciences have multiplied many sectors. This article deals with a study of the way of deciphering the literary songs in the Sangam Age.
Keywords: Sangam Literature, Science, Ecology, Tamil People.
3. சூழலியல் நோக்கில் சூல் நாவல் கூறும் சமூக மாற்றங்கள்
முனைவர் அ. அமுதா
Social Changes in Ecological Perspective as Portrayed in the Novel Sool
Dr. A. Amutha
Early Tamil society was a hunting society. Man used to hunt animals for food and look for food available in nature. Later, he engaged in animal husbandry, created pasture lands and found a decent life. History tells us that it was only when he invented agriculture that established a sustainable life along the river banks in ancient Tamil Nadu. Towns, human life and civilization developed where water was found. As the urban civilization developed on the banks of rivers, the “Sool” novel suggests that villages developed on the banks of Kanmai (Lake). The life of South Tamil Nadu farmers intertwined with agriculture, their moral beliefs, the conservation of plants and trees to protect the banks of the lake, the cultivation of Palm trees, natural knowledge about birds that predict the amount of breeding in advance and build nests can be seen in this novel. There was a belief among the people that to atone for their sins, those who had sinned should make amends by consolidating and benefiting nature, such as protecting water bodies, rearing goats and cows, and growing trees. In the villages, there are deities like Ayyanar and Karuppasamy in Kanmaikarai (Bay of the Lakes) to protect the town, and we can learn the story of Neer Paichi, the guardian deity who came to life to protect the water bodies. Cho. Dharman’s “Sool” strongly recorded in the novel that water levels are the world's life-carrying “Sool” (feutus). But in today's era, the state of agricultural industry has been in a very bad state due to the lack of proper water supply and management and the reduced maintenance of the dams and selfishness.
Keywords: Cho. Dharman, Sool, Irrigation, Agriculture, Lake, Ecological Perspective.
4. சூழலியத் திறனாய்வு நோக்கில் குலோத்துங்கனின் படைப்புகள்
ரா. ஆர்த்தி & முனைவர் சு. பரணி
Kulothungan’s Works in Ecological Perspective
R. Arthi & Dr. S. Bharani
The word ‘ecology’ refers to surroundings. The environment of organisms is based on the environment in which they live. The ecological complexity that man is currently facing, is terrible. It is the study of ecology about the relationship between plants and animals and the environment in which they live, has come across many barriers more than before and is threatening the present existence of the entire planet. One can see the consequences of this, such as unprecedented floods, seasonal rains, and rapid migration of species. The human race has now begun to think about the rapid deterioration of the environment. As a result of this thought, the voice of protecting nature has started to brighten. They began to investigate what kind of place nature had been given to the people of this time. In Tamil literature, many records of ecology-based sources reflect Tamil society. Kulothungan is a famous Tamil poet who penned his poems with the thoughts and facts of ecology. Hence, this paper researches on the ecological concepts in the poems of Kulothungan and it can be passed on to today's generation to avoid ecological crisis.
Keywords: Ecology, Ancient Tamils, Kulothungan’s Concepts, Environmental Pollution.
5. தமிழ் இலக்கியங்களில் இனக்குழுப் பண்புகளும், சூழலியலும்
பா. எமி கார்மைக்கேல் பால் & முனைவர் A. ரந்திர் குமார்
Ethnic Group Traits and Ecology in Tamil Literature
P. Emi Karmichael Paul & Dr. A. Randhir Kumar
The ethnographic history of the four lands Kurinji, Mullai, Marudham and Neithal indicated in Tamil Sangam literature is confined to the culture and dialectical life of the respective ancient inhabitants of Tamil Nadu. The inherited anthropological and conceptual ecological themes and transgenerational transmission of the ethnic group become the history of the respective ethnic groups. It entails knowledge, belief, habit, art, morals, laws, attitudes, actions, literature, language, and religion and each forms the morals of humankind. Further, a natural environment is the basic of these bioethics, which spread like a food chain. Everyone is concern about the environment in contemporary circumstances, it is imperative to ensure that the Tamil ethnic groups who live in the four types of land are inclined to different natural environments and have been preserving nature for a long time. The proclaimed so-called environmentalists nowadays are upholding the western connotations of environment protection, it is indicated from the Sangam literature that Tamil ethnic groups have been pioneers in preserving, cultivating and rejuvenating natural resources. The Tamil society also entails the tradition of the sound concept of "sharing and relationship" rituals with nature implying the responsibility-driven utilization of the natural resources without exploiting the same for selfish incentives. The inferences from the literature also implied that the Tamil inhabitants of all four lands had a moral in re-creating the biodiversity environment, giving them as valuable resources to the future generation.
Keywords: Ethnic Group, Traits, Ecology, Sangam Literature, Tamil Culture.
6. குறுந்தொகையில் சுற்றுச்சூழல் பாதுகாப்பு
முனைவர் கே. பி. கனிமொழி
Environmental Protection in Kurunthogai
Dr. K. B. Kanimozhi
The environment is comprised of physical factors such as air, water, and land and living organisms such as plants, animals, micro-organisms and the human beings on this earth. The relationship between man and nature is immense when these ecological principles are carefully protected. It is a tradition for a man to associate the environment within his geographical boundaries with his social life. Biodiversity and conservation are centered on the natural environment. Sangam literature is considered highly among the world literature. “Kurunthogai” is one of the best among the Sangam literature which includes nature and Tamil culture. This book conveys the message of ancient Tamils living in harmony with nature. Everything created by God is nature like mountains and seas are nature, sparkling rain is nature, grass and animals are nature, and trees and plants are nature. Tamils made this sort of life in harmony with nature. This research paper is based on promoting the protection of the natural environment through “Kurunthogai” to inculcate environmental thinking among the people from Tamil Literary Text.
Keywords: Natural Ecology, Environment, Protection, Kurunthogai.
7. அழகிய பெரியவன் சிறுகதைகளில் சுற்றுச்சூழல் சிந்தனைகள்
முனைவர் ஏ. கௌதமச்செல்வி
Ecological Thoughts in the Short Stories of Azhagiya Periyavan
Dr. E. Gowthamaselvi
The short story is one of the fastest-growing literary genres due to the development of Tamil prose in the nineteenth century. Tamil short stories were written with day-to-day events happening in people's lives. Azhagiya Periyavan, a Tamil writer from Vellore district, has a passion for literature and community involvement. In this article, the study will find out the environmental thoughts found in his short stories. In this world created by God, various creatures, including humans, are living in harmony with nature. Natural resources are the resources that exist in nature without the intervention of humans on this earth consisting of the sun, atmosphere, water, land, minerals, plants and all animals. These include commercial, industrial utility, aesthetic value, scientific interest and cultural values. Although man gets all the basic needs for his life from nature, man is gradually destroying the earth by exploiting the natural resources due to his greed. This decomposition causes many pollutants in the surrounding environment. In today's modern age, we are not connected with nature but are interwoven with artificiality. If this situation continues, there is a danger that the human race will become extinct. So it is an important duty to preserve natural resources so that they can be used by future generations. This article is based on the ecological thoughts found in the short stories of Azhagiya Periyavan.
Keywords: Azhagiya Periyavan, Ecology, Thought, Short Story.
8. சங்க இலக்கியத்தில் காடுகளும் அதன் சூழல் அமைவுகளும்
முனைவர் மா. சங்கரேஸ்வரி
Forests and its Environmental Settings in the Context of Sangam Literature
Dr. M. Sankareswari
The people who lived in the Sangam period had their personal and social lives attached to the green environment of the earth. The poets of the Sangam times narrated the personal lives of people through the living and non–living things of that particular landscape. The poets in their poetry used the animals, birds and plants of the Tamil land. The forest has the combination of the above said three living things. Tholkappiyar calls the landscape of Mullai a place in and around the forest. The forest is not only seen in Mullai alone but also is seen in Kurinchi, Palai, Neithal and Marutham. Mullai is a place where the trees are larger and dense which is called a dense forest. This sort of forest creates a green environment. The green environment is the symbol of the wealth of nature. Such a green environment increased the prosperity of lands. It existed in the Sangam times. The poets of the Sangam Period who recorded the lifestyle of the people also recorded the green environment of the forests. The Sangam poets also recorded the nature of the forest, the importance of the forest, the connection between the five lands and the type of forests in the Sangam literature.
Keywords: Forests, Environmental Settings, Sangam Literature, Tamil People.
9. நாலி புதினத்தில் இறால் பண்ணையின் இயற்கைவள மாசுபாடுகள்
திருமதி க. சத்யஜோதி & முனைவா் ஜெ. நிர்மலா தேவி
Natural Resource Pollution of Prawn Farm in the Novel Naali
Mrs. K. Sathya Jothi & Dr. J. Nirmala Devi
The superpowers of the world tend to exploit developing countries for their own needs. Their political hunt to get the products they need from other countries without affecting their country's environment is a big risk to the country that lets them do it. Similarly, shrimp, which is the main food exported abroad, also affects the environment of countries like India. There are many environmentalists and social activists who express this view on spoiling marine life and the world. In present Tamil literature also many writers speak of this issue. One of them is the writer 'Vaimainathan'. His work 'Naali', depicts the attacks on the environment of the shrimp farm. 'Nali' is a term used to refer to a natural drainage that may be located near coastal brackish water. The novel illustrates a system of shrimp farms that destroy natural drainage. In this article, the writer has elaborately explained about shrimp farming. Based on these ideas, this article shows what kind of chemical fertilizers shrimp, referred to as the 'dollar animal', are grown and how those fertilizers make the land infertile. The article also shows how the arrival of shrimp farms in Tamil Nadu was also revealed through the novel 'Naali'. In addition to this, this research is structured to highlight how shrimp farming, and contamination of natural elements such as water pollution, land degradation, and agricultural invasions through the novel 'Naali'.
Keywords: Vaimainathan, Naali, Prawn farms, Water pollution, Agriculture Attack.
10. குறுந்தொகைத் திணைமரபில் இயற்கைப் பின்னணியும் ப்ராய்டின் உளவியல் கோட்பாடும்
ந. சுதா & முனைவர் ச. பிரியதர்சினி
Nature in the Thinai Culture of Kurunthogai and Freud’s Theory of Psychology
N. Sudha & Dr. C. Priyadharshini
Literature is a mirror of time that captures the lives of people. From the Sangam period to the present, the experiences of human beings became the subject of poetry and other types of literary genres. Sangam literature gives us a sense of the ancient Tamil civilization and culture of the Tamil people. Although they are very short songs, they stand high due to the theme and beautiful depiction of the subject, the historical messages and the emotions that explain it, and the textual excellence. Therefore, it is possible to examine the Sangam literature from the initial analytical approach with all the modern literary theories of today. Research is done comparing Sangam literature with various fields. At that level, the Sangam Literature describes Tamil literature as one that accommodates all kinds of western approaches. In that way, this article is based on the natural background and Freud's psychological theory in one of the associational literatures.The purpose of this article is to explore the natural resources in the poems of “Kurunthogai” using Freud’s psychological ideas that enthral as paintings in our hearts and mix them with the lives lived at the Sangam time.
Keywords: Nature, Thinai Culture, Kurunthogai, Freud, Psychology.
11. அருள்தரு பூங்கோதையன்னை பிள்ளைத்தமிழ் காட்டும் நிலச்சூழலியல்
திருமதி ந. தமிழரசி & முனைவர் ஆ. மகாலட்சுமி
Land Ecology Portrayed in Arultharu Poongothaiyannai Pillaithamil
Mrs. N. Tamilarasi & Dr. A. Mahalakshmi
Nature is the best gift of God to life. Nature is self-appearing and disappearing without human intervention. This beauty of nature can be seen in literature. Literature helps us to know about nature. From Sangam literature to contemporary literature, all of them are inspired by nature's beauty. The purpose of this article is to explore the nature and environment of the land located in “Arultharu Poongotaiyana Pillaithamil”. The land is what sustains countless living and non-living beings and things. Trees and plants make good use of these. In Tamil country, land has been classified into five types in the Sangam literature namely Kurinji, Mullai, Marutham, Neithal and Palai. They mentioned that the hilly place is Kurinji, the Forest is Mullai, the Field is Marut, the Sea is Neithal, and the desert place is Palai. In Sangha literature, land stood as a symbol of life. Hence, ecology refers to the nature that surrounds us. “Arultharu Poongothaiannai Pillaithamil” is filled with innumerable ecological thoughts. The role of five elements (Panchabhutas) in nature is very essential. Very important of them is the land and it shows how the living organisms on the land contribute to ecology. All living things on land depend on each other. Hence, land plays a major role in maintaining ecology. The article studies how violence is done by man on the land and how we can recover it through the land-oriented ecological values from “Arultharu Poongotaiyana Pillaithamil”.
Keywords: Land, Ecology, Portrayal, Arultharu Poongothaiyannai Pillaithamil.
12. குறுந்தொகையில் சுற்றுச்சூழல் நுண்ணறிவு
த. திலகவதி & முனைவர் மு. கவிதா
Environmental Intelligence in Kurunthogai
T. Thilagavathi & Dr. M. Kavitha
Sangam literary works are self-explanatory of nature and Tamil culture. Ecology is about explaining the relationship between human society and nature. The basic premise is that human society and culture emerge in a particular natural environment as products or outcomes of adaptation. It is a tradition for man to associate the environment within his geographical boundaries with his social life. Biodiversity and conservation are vital for natural environments. It is noteworthy that ecologists are discussing and talking about the disasters that occur in the world in a modern way in modern societies. Although the scientific discoveries of man, who gradually developed from ape according to evolution, are going towards development, we are witnessing that the consequences of them greatly affect the future generations. All fields of study have become aware of the need for vulnerability. Sangam literatures are based on the natural life of the Tamils. It can be seen that each song interprets the subject matter with a particular land or themes related to it as a background. In this paper, the news related to Tamil people's life and environmental intelligence recorded in “Kurunthogai” is examined.
Keywords: Environment, Intelligence, Kurunthogai, Tamil Culture.
13. நாலடியாரில் அறம்சார் இயற்கைச் சூழலியல்
பா. தினேஷ்குமார் & முனைவர் பே. மஹேஸ்வரி
Ethical Natural Ecology in Naladiyar
B. Dineshkumar & Dr. P. Maheswari
“Naladiyar” is one of the eighteen books (Pathinenkeelkanaku) that is considered didactic literature in Tamil Literature. The Jain monks composed it in the seventh century. In addition, it advises people to lead a moral life. “Naladiyar” is full of virtues and they also convey various messages related to the natural environment of the people around them, such as plants, animals, birds, and natural systems, along with the lifestyle, culture, customs, materials used, by the people of that time. The Jain sages who composed “Naladiyar” mentioned various types of morals in their books, but they did not fail to explain the living conditions of the people of that time as parables and references, such as about the flora and fauna such as animals, birds, and humans and grass, plants, vines, trees, and parts of the geography of the Tamil five lands, There are also many messages in “Naladiyar” about mountains, seas, rains and celestial bodies such as the moon, the sun, and related environments. This article presents various types of natural environments found in the forest as depicted in “Naladiyar”.
Keywords: Naladiyar, Ethics, Nature, Ecology.
14. தமிழ் புதுக் கவிதைகளில் இயற்கை
முனைவர் சு. தீபா
Nature in Modern Tamil Poetry
Dr. S. Deepa
This world is in order with the metabolism of sky, air, fire, water and land. There is neither creator nor literature which does not sing this world of nature. From the Sangam period to this present time, there is no work of any kind of literature that does not have natural thinking in it. But as far as creativity is concerned, the days of singing about gods, kings and those who were high in society have gone, and creators have changed to the extent that they consider the environment as the subject of their works. Nature, which runs and plays with existence and non-existence, is living by renewing itself according to the times. In modern literature, especially in new poetics, these natural impressions are receiving great attention from the creators. Nature portrays itself as forests, trees, flowers, mountains, heat, cold, rain, villages, agriculture, and other natural habitats. The swaying course of nature is beautifully recorded in modern works. It can be seen that the status of writing only aesthetics in the records about nature has changed and the purpose of the work has been expanded in new poetics such as environmental degradation, the damage caused by them, and the awareness to be gained. Hence, this article decodes the poems that praise and give awareness from the new poems about nature.
Keywords: Tamil Poetry, Natural Environment, Modern Tamil Writers, Awareness.
15. சோளகர் பழங்குடியின மக்களின் மரபுசார் சூழலியல் அறிவும் விழிப்புணர்வும்
ஆ. தீபிகா & முனைவர் ச. பிரியதர்சினி
Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Awareness of Sholakar Tribal People
A. Deepika & Dr. C. Priyadharshini
In Tamil Nadu, there are many groups of tribal people living in the Western Ghats. They are traditional and have certain natural fond over the preservation of the forests. They give respect to the plants and animals and live a happy life amidst nature. Indeed, their lives are not recorded properly in Tamil academia, S. Balamurugan’s novel “Sholakar Thotti” records the lives of the Sholakar people. They live on the southern side of the Nilgris and in the border of Erode of Tamil Nadu near to the Karnataka State. They live on the Pilikiranga Mountain folds for many generations. This article reveals the traditional natural knowledge, economy and habitat of the Sholakar people living in the Western Ghats and the harmonious bond they have with the flora, birds and the animals in the forest. This article also examines the forest knowledge, food gathering and collection of forest products of the Sholakar people. It takes the contextual knowledge of the Sholakar people and their lifestyle in harmony with nature as seen in the novel “Sholakar Thotti” (Sholakar Tank) written by S. Balamurugan.
Keywords: S. Balamurugan, Sholakar Thotti, Tradition, Eco-Knowledge, Sholakar, Tribal People.
16. வண்ணதாசன் சிறுகதைகளில் மரங்கள்
திருமதி. சி. நந்தினி & முனைவர் பெ. ரேவதி
Trees in the Short Stories of Vannadasan
Mrs. C. Nandhini & Dr. P. Revathi
Ancient Tamil literature and grammar texts explain the beauty of the life of the ancient Tamils who saw the pleasure of nature. Ancient Tamil poets used nature as a background to depict human life. The two adjectives in Sangam literature are the metaphors of nature and the divine songs. Vannadasan is a Tamil poet who has been creating works of literature in this area and has shown in his short stories that he loves and interacts with the creations of nature around him. In his stories, one can naturally feel that man loves the living and non-living things around him with a passion. Storytellers with a penchant for survival are featured in his works. Through his short story, one can know the character of developing human love based on nature. Nature is the origin of man and nurtures the life of the natural world. Hence, trees are necessary to maintain the balance of nature and human life. Indeed, various organisms are more than life but the essential ones are the trees. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to study the trees that have been seen in the short stories of Vannadasan.
Keywords: Vannadasan, Short Stories, Nature, Trees, Environment.
17. தமிழ்ப் புனைகதைகளில் கடல் மாசுபாடு
முனைவா் ஜெ. நிர்மலா தேவி
Marine Pollution as Portrayed in Tamil Fiction
Dr. J. Nirmala Devi
The world's largest ecosystem is the ocean. 97.2% of Earth's total water is found in oceans. Global warming, which is increasing day by day due to the arrogance, and selfishness of man, does not only affect the human race; It also shortens the lifespan of animals; It also leads to the extinction of various species. It also underlies the impact on the marine environment. So, the sea resource decreases and the marine populations suffer. Novels and short stories point out these effects and tend to create awareness among people. This article is based on the two novels 'Selukedu' and 'Kadal Adi' written by Kurumbani C. Berlin and the short story 'Silambu Chellappa' by A. Muthulingam. These fictions claim that human activities are the primary cause of ocean pollution. Chemical plants, dye houses, nuclear power plants and desalination plants located in coastal areas discharge their wastes into the sea and the marine environment is greatly affected by them. Apart from that, the Indian government has allowed thousands of foreign ships to fish. The gillnets used by them are killing the fish and destroying the coral reefs. The shipowners who want to get huge compensation from insurance companies deliberately crash them on the rocks in the sea and the oil leaking from them pollutes the sea. 'Selugedu' novel explains such news. The novel 'Kadal Adi' highlights the fact that the sea waves come far during storms and destroy the fishermen's residences due to the sand robbery by the dominance on the beach every day and the plight of many people who lived in the area fell prey to cancer due to the radiation emitted while digging the soil on the beach. Plastics used by humans often end up in the ocean. Plastic bags have become a part of human life. The short story 'Silambu Chellappa' gives awareness that sea turtles and fishes who eat them as squid when they glisten in the sunlight are perishing.
Keywords: Marine Pollution, Marine Environment, Tamil Fiction, Tamil Short Story.
18. தொல்காப்பிய கருப்பொருளும் பேரழிவு மேலாண்மையும்
Themes of Tolkappiam and Disaster Management
Dr. T. Parimala
Natural calamity is related to personal life and property. A natural disaster is not man-made but today it is true. Nature is dismantled when people distort it based on needs. For example, there are many other reasons like deforestation, shortening of rivers and streams to create settlements, encroachment of ponds and lakes to create high buildings, dumping of waste materials in water bodies, and use of water in water bodies for agricultural land. While some events are being carried out for the economic development of the country, the environment is affected by the increase in population. This is true to the present day condition. Sangam Tamil Literature suggests that the environment protects living organisms. All Sangam literature songs have a connection to nature and the environment. If nature is removed, there is no beauty in the Sangam songs. ‘Eraichi’ and ‘Ullurai’ are the central themes in Sangam poems. “Tolkappiam” speaks about land, time based on land, exchange of love between man and woman living on land, and basic needs of people such as food, clothing, and shelter based on five landscapes of Tamil Nadu. The article shows how environment plays a vital part in disaster management. Although we cannot completely stop natural disasters, the intelligence of the ancient people encourages us to take precautionary measures to protect ourselves from them.
Keywords: Natural, Calamity, Disaster Management, Tolkappiam.
19. நாட்டுப்புற சூழலியலில் நகை அழுகை மெய்ப்பாடுகள்
முனைவர் ஜ. பபீதா
Truths of Laughter and Cry in Folk Ecology
Dr. J. Papeetha
Folk culture can be considered a geographical concept, conceptual narrative and cultural tales that are linked to ecology and it can be seen as a bridge connecting the human relationship between nature and time. Along with the connection of every moment of man with the environment, the beliefs, customs, festivals, and culture of the people of the country. It also gives the truths along with happiness and remorse that portray life to the oral literature. When those who hear the traditional songs, they will sing the lines and forget them. They add new lines and use those lines according to the environment they live in. Majority of the folk literature contains humour as its motif and gives shape to the background of the literature. The traditional thoughts show the life of the Tamil people. It seems a conceptual mirror that connects time and environment. This research paper studies folk ecology that has been employed in Tamil folk songs with a significant aim of exploring it from an ecological perspective.
.Keywords: Ecology, Laughter, Cry, Truths, Traditional Thoughts, Folk Literature.
20. குறிஞ்சி நில மக்களின் சுற்றுச்சூழல் மேலாண்மை
முனைவர் ர. பிரித்தா
Environmental Management of the People of Kurinji
Dr. R. Preetha
The world is not only composed of Pancha Buddhas like earth, water, fire, air and sky. It is natural. The Tamil forefathers who knew this very well dealt with nature in the context of nature in Tholkaapiyam. Nature is ever changing and it is the permanent nature. Every man gets his needs from nature according to the environment in which he lives. When man became greedy, the environment began to suffer. However, there are plenty of records of people living in the Sangam period living without any impact on the environment. Sangam literature speaks about society in harmony with nature. There are many records of people living with nature as life, feeling, relationships, food and life. From the king to the common people, they have protected nature and the environment. People of the Sangam period could live according to the land and natural environment they lived in. They divided the lands into Kurinji, Mullai, Marutham, Neithal and Palai, and they used the natural materials found there as raw materials and used them as their livelihood. They had great knowledge and awareness of the environment and considered the places where they lived as deities. In the land of Kurinji, the mountain, in the land of Neithal, the sea, in the land of Marutham, the agricultural land, and in the land of Mullai, the forest are the mountain forms. The ancient Tamil people lived in harmony with nature and protected the environment. This article decodes the messages about the environmental management of the people in Kurinji land.
Keywords: Sangam literature, People, Kurinji, Environment, Management.
21. சூழலியல் நோக்கில் வேள்பாரி நாவல்
பொன். கனகா & முனைவர் ர. செல்வலதா
Velpaari Novel in Ecological Perspective
Pon. Kanaga & Dr. R. Selvalatha
Ecology is the field of scientific study of the distribution of organisms and the interactions between organisms and their natural environment. It is used to predict the life of organisms that extend from the small being to the universe. Since time immemorial, man has lived with a profound knowledge of ecology. For the survival of every human being in society, it is essential to have a clear knowledge of the power of nature and the ecology of life and suitable conditions surrounding him, such as plants, animals, birds, and other living and non-living organisms. The novel “Veerayuga Naayagan Velpari” written by writer S. Venkatesan, captures a wide variety of messages related to the natural and cultural environment that is in tune with the lives of the ancient Tamil people. “Velpari” is the story of a brave Duke in Tamil Nadu. His prowess is unmatchable to the triumvirs of Tamil Nadu. He is one of the seven Philanthropists of Tamil Nadu in the Sangam times. He ruled a stretch of hillocks called Parambu Malai in Sivagangai District, Tamil Nadu. It is a natural environment that he protected. S. Venkatesan has portrayed many such records from the literary evidence in his novel. Hence, this paper examines the novel from an ecological point of view to understand the relationship between the Sangam Tamil People and nature.
Keywords: S. Venkatesan, Velpaari, Novel, Ecology, Sangam Tamil People.
22. சிலப்பதிகாரச் சுற்றுப்புறச் சூழலும் தற்காலச் சூழலும்
முனைவர் அ. மகபூபு
Environment in the Times of Silappathikaram and Present
Dr. A. Mahabobu
Environment is the natural environment around us that includes forests, oceans, mountains, and various other landscapes. These regions are rich in non-renewable mineral resources. In this natural environment, various organisms and thousands of microorganisms created by humans coexist with nature. Earth's biodiversity can only be preserved if we preserve and protect this natural environment, which contains innumerable living organisms and microorganisms. There are many proofs in Tamil literature that Tamil Nadu is a great country with abundant natural resources. This article compares the Moovendras who are mentioned in three Cantos and thirty divisions in the epic literature “Silapathikaram” and the three triumvirs who ruled Chola Nadu, Chera Nadu and Pandiya Nadu and the natural resources in them that made those countries prosperous by the rivers Kaveri, Vaigai, Periyar etc. and the natural resources and natural environment of these areas.
Keywords: Environment, Fertile, Silappathikaram, Present Times, Tamil Nadu.
23. சூல் புதினத்தில் உயிரினங்களின் முக்கியத்துவம்
கி. முருகலட்சுமி & முனைவர் சு. பரணி
Importance of Living Organisms in the Novel Sool
K. Murugalakshmi & Dr. S. Bharani
Literature acts as a mirror in the era of capturing human life. Literature has evolved in various dimensions starting from the Sangam period to the present day literature. Human life is connected with nature like culture, civilization and change environment including the land, water, air, plants, birds, and animals around man and the arrangements made by man and his living conditions, socio-economic, technological structure etc. So, it is vital to realize the importance of creatures that live along with people's lives. There are enormous hints related to the environment and life in Cho. Dharman's novel "Sool". His novel speaks of how biodiversity and non-living organisms in natural environments help agricultural processes. Many species feed on the exposed micro-organisms (worms, insects). Birds and plants play a vital role in agriculture. The novel “Sool” speaks about water conservation, astronomical facts on the arrival of rain, and actions of birds, animals, and many living beings that are important in the lives of the people. Hence, this article explores the importance of living organisms found in the novel "Sool".
Keywords: Importance, Living Organisms, Cho Dharman, Novel, Sool.
24. ‘மலையச்சியின் கதையும்’ மாறும் வாழிடச் சூழலமைவும்
திருமதி க. ராமு & முனைவா் ஜெ. நிர்மலா தேவி
'Malaiyachiyin Kadhai' and the Changing Environment
Mrs. G. Ramu & Dr. J. Nirmala Devi
The living organisms appeared and proliferated in the world in the state of mono-intelligence and bi-intelligence. Human beings first appeared in a natural balance of dense forests, high mountains and flowing rivers. The proliferating human race eventually split into groups and evolved into tribal life. Nature maintained its balance until the time when humanity worshipped flames, trees and life-giving nature and lived in harmony with nature without any historical issues. The tribal society had the concept of the Five Boothas (five elements) and the knowledge of the five landscapes. Biodiversity flourished in indigenous habitats of the ancient Tamil lands. Monica Maran is a Tamil author who is keen on recording natural imbalance. The author records the disruption of the natural balance in the voice of a mountain tribe named Renuga in her novel “Malayachiyin Kadhai”. In this novel, Renuka's life, who lived in Manjapul hut, changes into a mansion. Although living in a mansion, her mind yearns for the Manjapul cottage. When she goes back to the Manjapul hut, the change in the environment of Javvadu Hill is depicted in the story. The fertile nature and prosperity of Kurinji, which stands on a hill, declined due to urbanization. Indigenous peoples who protect ecology are forced to become orphans in their lands. Human society violates the compatibility between nature and itself to sustain itself. Hence, this article examines the changing habitats as seen in Monica Maran’s novel “Malayachiyin Kadhai”.
.Keywords: Monica Maran, Malaiyachiyin Kadhai, Tribes, Changing Ecology, Javadu Hill.
25. சூழலியல் கோட்பாட்டு நோக்கில் பழந்தமிழரின் நில, நீர் சிந்தனைகள்
முனைவர் இரா. ஜெய்சங்கர்
Thoughts of Classical Tamil People on Land and Water in Ecological Perspective
Dr. R. Jaisankar
The ancient Tamil transformed the barren, overgrown land into arable land with their tireless efforts and labour. The Tamil grow crops only during the rainy season, stored the water over time, and used it when needed. Thus, they fulfilled their food needs and lived themselves and other lives as well. It can be known through the ancient Sangam literature that the environment is protected and biodiversity is special due to their thinking. Sangam people not only led a life in harmony with nature but also enriched themselves according to natural resources. They have done well in agriculture according to the soil and season. It can be known from Tolkappiya Noorpa that the Tamils had this sort of nature-oriented idea. It can be understood that Tolkappiyar has given priority to land and says 'the first thing is land and time' in the three categories Mutharporul (primary), Karuporul (subject) and Uriporul (theme). Over time, the natural way of life has become commercialized due to the greed of mankind. Due to this, everything like land, water, air is out of balance and the environment has been greatly affected and the climate has changed. Humanity is facing many hardships due to this. Now, the life and the thoughts of Classical Tamil on the environment are much needed for certain reformation to keep our culture from demolishment. This article examines the pros and cons and the possibilities of modern environmental development with the classical Tamil life. It will help the future generations to live better with a good environment.
Keywords: Biodiversity, Environment, Ecological, Sangam People, Humanity.
26. Human and Nature Relationship in the Novel Jaya
T. V. Kushma Kumari & Dr. S. Jayalakshmi
Ancient Hindu teachings present nature as a deity and emphasize the notion that human adoration of the natural world and respect for all living things have maintained ecological balance. The natural world has long been worshipped as a deity. From many literary to philosophical texts, nature worship has preserved the balance of the ecosystem and highlights the damage done to it. Environmental ethics often contain teachings about dharma and righteousness which include responsibilities towards nature and the environment can explore how these texts contribute to the development of an environment in Indian culture. This paper explores the eco-critical aspects found in the novel “Jaya: an Illustrated Retelling of Mahabharata”. The novel offers a multifaceted exploration of human-nature relationships it promotes the idea that humans have a moral and ethical duty to respect, protect and live in harmony with nature.
Keywords: Eco-Criticism, Retelling of Mahabharata, Human-Nature, Environment ethics.
27. An Intersectional Exploration of War Literature and Environment
R. Padmavathi & Dr. Sreeja Balakrishnan
This research article digs into the complex nexus between war literature and the environment, revealing the various ways in which armed conflict and the natural world cross in literary narratives. This article tries to illuminate the growing representation of the environment against the backdrop of conflict by evaluating a varied variety of texts spanning different historical periods, genres, and cultural settings. The study begins with the phenomenon of how war is worshipped in literature, looking at how landscapes, ecosystems, and the larger environment have traditionally been represented as both victims and witnesses of battle in war literature. It demonstrates how to use vivid and emotive language to depict the environmental toll of conflict, putting light on ecosystem loss, community relocation, and the long-term ecological scars left by combat. The study focuses on select works from English and Tamil Literature that focus on war and the ideas of the environment. It would be helpful to know the harms of war and the need to preserve the environment for the younger generation.
Keywords: Environment, War, Literature, Ecology, Historical Context.